BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test is manufactured by BALLYA, it’s rapid test for detection Foot and Mouth Disease in pigs and various ruminants, especially the pig. Lateral flow assay test base on the gold immunochromatography assay technology.
Foot-and-mouth disease is an acute, febrile, and high-contact infectious disease of artiodactyls. The virus mutates and spreads very quickly. It can infect more than 70 domestic and wild artiodactyls. The industry has caused a considerable impact. The World Organisation for Animal Health has listed it as an infectious disease that must be declared, and China has listed it as the first animal infectious disease.
Foot and mouth disease symptoms
At the beginning of the illness, he had a fever of 41 °C and drooled. After 1-2 days, blisters from soybeans to walnuts appeared on the inner surfaces of lips, gums, tongue and buccal mucosa. Soon the blisters burst, forming neatly eroded red surfaces. If a secondary bacterial infection occurs, an ulcer occurs. As the blisters appear in the mouth, the skin between the toes and hoofs becomes red, swollen, and then turns white to form blisters. After the blister ruptured, a red eroded surface was left, followed by sc. If there is a bacterial infection, suppuration can occur, the hoof can't touch the ground, and the hoof shell can even fall.
What's Foot and Mouth Disease virus?
Foot and mouth disease virus genome
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the Picornaviridae virus family. FMDV virions consist of nucleic acids and capsids that surround the positive-strand RNA of the genome. The viral genome encodes a single long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5 'untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR).
Foot and mouth disease virus transmission
Foot-and-mouth disease virus can be transmitted through direct and indirect contact. Direct contact: Direct contact with the secretions and excreta of sick animals. Indirect contact: intake of food or water contaminated by sick animals, through air droplets or inhalation of virus-containing dust.
Foot and mouth disease virus mechanism of action
FMDV can bind to receptor molecules on the surface of host cells, enter cells through endocytosis, replicate and proliferate in the cytoplasm, and usually generate new infectious viral particles 4 to 6 hours after infection. The first step in viral infection is the specific recognition of receptors. Studies have confirmed that integrins and heparan sulfate are receptors for FMDV. In vitro experiments have shown that integrins αVβ1, αVβ3, αVβ5, αVβ6, αVβ8 can recognize FMDV the RGD motif of the shell protein VP1, in which αVβ6 is only present in epithelial cells, compared with other receptors, the virus is more likely to bind to it in vivo.
Foot and mouth disease for animals
Foot and mouth disease in cattle
The incubation period of cattle is 2 ~ 7 days. It can be seen that the body temperature rises from 40 °C to 41 °C and drooling, and it will soon appear on the soft skin of the lips, gums, tongue, cheek mucosa, between toes and crowns, and breast skin. Blisters, red blemishes formed after blister rupture, after which the erosion gradually heals, ulcers may also occur, and scars will form after healing. Numerous sick animal drool, eat less or refuse to eat; hoof pain causes lameness or even fall of the hoof shell. The disease generally has a low mortality rate in adult cattle, ranging from 1% to 3%, but in calves, mortality is high due to myocarditis and hemorrhagic enteritis.
Foot and mouth disease in goats
Symptoms usually occur after 1 to 7 days of incubation in goat after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection. The sick goat's body temperature rises, the initial body temperature can reach 40 ℃ ~ 41 ℃, the spirit is depressed, the loss of appetite or refusal to feed, the pulse and breathing are accelerated. Blisters, ulcers, and erosions appear in the mouth, hoofs, and breasts. In severe cases, round rotten spots and ulcers can occur on the mucous membranes of the throat, trachea, and foregastric stomach. Goat hoof symptoms are obvious, and the changes of the oral mucosa are mild. Goat symptoms are more common in the mouth, with diffuse oral mucositis, blisters found in the hard palate and tongue, and the lesions of the hoof are mild. After the blisters of the diseased goat rupture, the body temperature drops obviously, and the symptoms gradually improve.
Foot and mouth disease swine
Foot-and-mouth disease of swine is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, which manifests as blisters and rotten spots on the skin of hoof crowns, interphalangeal, and hoofs. The oral mucosa and nasal disc of some pigs also have the same disease. Expelling anti-virus, local anti-inflammatory. Foot-and-mouth disease of swine usually occurs in winter and spring when direct and indirect contact can make pigs sick, such as sick pigs, swill, contaminated breeding equipment and transportation vehicles.
Foot and mouth disease treatment
For the most severe types of reactions: a rapid subcutaneous injection of 0.1% epinephrine 5 mg is recommended depending on the degree of remission, and the same dose can be repeated after 20 minutes; intramuscular injection of 500 mg of promethazine hydrochloride (finnagan); intramuscular injection of 30 mg of phosphate Seminison Used in pregnant animals. For shocked cows, in addition to the above injections, you must quickly acupuncture the tip of the ear, the large vein (on the vein at the first third of the vein groove), and the tail junction between the spinous processes of the tail root (in the middle) Depression is recommended, acupoints of the hoof (middle of the posterior edge of the hoof crown, the junction of hairy and hairless; that is, the upper edge of three to four) hoof, each point is inside and outside hoof, a total of 8 points. Quickly establish a venous channel, add 10 mg of norepinephrine, and 2,000 ml of 10% glucose intravenously. For patients with a temperature below 36.5 °C, in addition to the above-mentioned drugs, acetyl coenzyme AA1000 units, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 200 mg, inosine 3000 mg, and 25% glucose 2000 ml should be added intravenously. After the cow woke up and resumed his rhythm, he took this group of medicines, replacing them with 2000 ml of 5% dextrose saline, intravenously adding vitamin C5 g and vitamin B63000 mg, and then using 500 ml of a 5% sodium hydrogen sulfate solution.
Foot and mouth disease prevention
Strengthen management and quarantine Blisters or ulcers, drooling, and lameness are found on the mouth, hooves, and breasts of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, and pigs. They should be reported to the local animal epidemic prevention supervision agency immediately. Under the guidance of professionals, epidemic hunting, disinfection and other work can effectively prevent the spread and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Isolate and control the source of infection. Confirmed patients and suspected patients need to be isolated until local and systemic symptoms disappear. Avoid spread Don't buy quarantine, non-point slaughtered livestock meat, and do not consume undercooked processed meat products. Do not touch sick dead animals and their contaminated hair waves, do not drink the milk of sick animals, or eat the meat of sick dead animals.
Foot and mouth disease vaccine
Breeders should insist on regular systemic vaccination of all livestock, so that livestock have better immunity. Workers who come into contact with livestock should raise their awareness of the dangers of the disease, consciously abide by the epidemic prevention and disinfection system, rigorously disinfect the barns, cow pens, and sports grounds on a regular basis every month, and do their own protective measures.
Which animals can be detected by the BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test?
Pigs and various ruminants can use the BALLYA Chlamydia Test for Foot and Mouth Disease detection. In the future, BALLYA will conduct more studies on Foot and Mouth Disease in different types of animals. The BALLYA Chlamydia Test has two detection targets for Chlamydia detection: Chlamydia antigen and Chlamydia antibody. And there are different types of kits that can detect different types of foot-and-mouth disease, such as Asian type I, type A, etc. You can choose according to your needs.
Significance of testing Foot and mouth disease
In order to ensure the safety of consumers, reduce the economic loss of the owner of the breeding plant, prevent the sick pigs from entering the market, and treat the sick pigs in time, the Foot and mouth diseaseTest can play a key role. Ensure the safety of farm owners and consumers, reduce unnecessary losses.
Component of BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test?
BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test, 20 cassettes Swab, 20 pcs PE Groves, 1 packet Sample Buffer, 20 vials Mini Pipette (optional) Disposable micropipette tips (optional) Kit Instruction, 1pcs
How to use BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test?
1. Used the swab to dip the normal saline and collect the sample from infection sites. 2. Then insert the swab to the buffer solution test tube immediately. Spin the swab until the reagent mix with the sample (not less than 10 times). Squeeze the swab on the inner tube wall to squeeze out the liquid. 3. Cover the lid and oscillate strongly for more than 30s, stand for precipitation about 5mins and absorb the supernatant as the sample. 4. Put the test card on the flat table, add 5 drops in the sample well carefully. 5. Read the result within 10-15 minutes. The result after 15 minutes is invalid.
Limitations of BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test?
BALLYA Foot and Mouth Disease Test is a qualitative test kit. It’s only for screening purpose. If have positive cases or suspected case, maybe use other detection method to make a further detection, such as, ELISA, PCR, qPCR, etc.
The World Organisation for Animal Health has classified foot-and-mouth disease as a class a severe infectious disease of animals, which seriously endangers the healthy development of animal husbandry and the foreign trade of related products, and has a profound impact on the country's politics and economy. BALLYA Foot and mouth disease Test provided by BALLYA can effectively detect whether pigs and various ruminants have foot and mouth disease. The kit is not only simple to operate, but also has short detection time and high accuracy, so that the veterinarian can understand the animal's physical condition and take appropriate treatment measures in time.