What is BALLYA Influenza Test?
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is manufactured by BALLYA, it’s rapid test for detection Influenza disease in pigs, canine, and poultry. Lateral flow assay test base on the gold immunochromatography
What is Influenza?
is referred to as influenza virus. It is divided into three types: A (A), B (B), and C (C). Influenza viruses discovered in recent years will be classified as D (D). Influenza viruses can cause infection and disease in many animals such as humans, poultry, pigs, horses, and bats, and are the pathogens of human and animal diseases such as human influenza, avian influenza, swine influenza, and equine influenza.
The typical clinical symptoms of these diseases are acute high fever, body pain, significant fatigue and respiratory symptoms. Influenza viruses are mainly spread through droplets in the air, contact between susceptible and infected persons, or contact with contaminated items. Generally autumn and winter are its high incidence periods. Human influenza is mainly caused by influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses often undergo antigenic mutations and can be further divided into subtypes such as H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9 (where H and N represent the two surface glycoproteins of influenza viruses). The influenza virus is not strong against the outside world. Animal influenza viruses do not usually infect humans, and human influenza viruses do not usually infect animals, but pigs are an exception. Pigs can be infected with both human influenza virus and avian influenza virus, but they are mainly infected with swine influenza virus. After a few animal influenza viruses adapt to humans, they can cause a human influenza pandemic.
What is swine influenza?
Swine flu is an acute respiratory infection of swine caused by influenza A virus. Influenza virus belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, including 4 genera of A, B, C, and Tokatovirus. Influenza A virus can infect a variety of animals, including many birds and mammals. B and C viruses only seem to be isolated from humans. Although influenza C viruses have also been isolated from pigs, the majority of infected pigs are influenza A virus.
Swine influenza symptoms in pigs
The main symptoms are similar to colds, with fever, cough, fatigue, and loss of appetite. The symptoms of a person infected with swine flu are similar to those of a cold. Patients may develop fever, cough, fatigue, and loss of appetite. In terms of prevention, it is not necessary to get together to get the human flu vaccine at this stage, because the prevention of seasonal flu vaccines has no effect on the prevention of swine flu. The correct way is to develop good personal hygiene habits, get enough sleep, exercise, reduce stress, and nutrition; wash your hands frequently, especially after touching public goods before touching your eyes, nose, and mouth; sneezing Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or coughing; keep the room ventilated and so on.
Swine influenza pathogenesis
The pathological changes of swine flu are mainly in the respiratory organs. The mucous membranes of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi are congested and swollen, and the surface is covered with a thick liquid. The small bronchi and bronchioles are filled with foam-like exudate. The chest and pericardial cavity accumulate a large amount of slurry mixed with cellulose. Lung lesions often occur in the dorsal and basal parts of the pointed, heart, mesenchymal, and zygomatic lobe, and have clear boundaries with surrounding tissues. The color ranges from red to purple, collapsed, solid, tough like leather, and splenomegaly. The neck lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes, and bronchial lymph nodes are mostly juicy.
Swine influenza transmission
Fast transmission: The human body does not have natural antibodies
to the new variant virus.
Mode of transmission: Sneezing, coughing and physical contact may cause the new swine flu virus to spread from person to person.
Human infection with swine flu can be through contact with infected pigs or the environment infected with the swine flu virus, or through contact with people infected with the swine flu virus. It can be transmitted from human to pig, from pig to human, and from person to person. Human-to-human transmission is mainly mediated by cough and sneeze of infected persons. Symptoms of swine flu infection in humans are similar to those of ordinary human flu, including fever, cough, sore throat, physical pain, headache, chills, and fatigue. Some may also experience diarrhea and vomiting. In severe cases, pneumonia and respiratory failure may occur even death.
Swine influenza virus structure
Swine influenza virus belongs to Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza virus A, and its genetic material is RNA. Typical virus particles are spheroidal, 80 nm to 120 nm in diameter, and have a capsule. There are many protruding glycoproteins on the capsule, which are hemagglutinin HA, neuraminidase NA and M2 protein. The nucleocapsids within the virus particles are spirally symmetrical and have a diameter of 10 nm. Swine influenza virus is a single-stranded negative-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13.6 kb and consists of eight independent fragments of varying sizes.
Swine influenza incubation period
The incidence of the disease is high, the incubation period is 2 to 7 days, and the course of the disease is about 1 week. Suddenly the sick pigs developed fever suddenly at the beginning of the onset, lost their energy, lost or lost their appetite, often lying on their backs together, reluctant to move, breathing difficulties, coughing violently, and mucus from the eyes and nose. If the treatment is not timely in the onset period, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pleurisy are likely to be complicated, which will increase the fatality rate of pigs.
Can swine influenza be prevented?
Get plenty of sleep, exercise, wash your hands, and keep the room ventilated, and develop good personal hygiene habits.
Personal protection measures include: avoid contact with respiratory-like symptoms (fever, cough, runny nose, etc.) or respiratory patients such as pneumonia; pay attention to personal hygiene, wash hands with soap and water, especially after coughing or sneezing; Places for pigs; avoid crowded places; cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, and then throw the tissue into a trash can; if flu-like symptoms occur overseas (fever, cough, runny nose, etc.), seek medical attention (Wear a mask when visiting a doctor) and explain to the local public health agency and inspection and quarantine department.
Swine influenza vaccine
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that there is only an anti-swine flu vaccine for swine, and there is no specific human vaccine. Ordinary anti-flu vaccines have no obvious effect on humans against swine flu.
What is canine influenza?
Dog flu, which was a variant of horses in 2008 and was transmitted to dogs, has infected some human nasal receptor proteins.
Various subtypes of influenza virus have been found to infect dogs, and multiple subtypes of influenza virus can infect dogs, including H1, H3, H5 and H9 subtypes. Among them, H3N8 and H3N2 subtype influenza viruses can spread in dogs and cause respiratory symptoms.
Canine influenza symptoms
Canine flu symptoms are similar to kennel cough symptoms. Dogs infected with canine influenza virus may develop two different syndromes:
Slight type. Dogs can cough for a long time, usually a wet cough, and symptoms can last for 10-30 days, possibly longer. Dogs will experience anorexia, lethargy, fever, runny nose and drool during this period.
Severe dogs can have a fever of over 40 °C canine influenza virus can affect the capillaries in the dog's lungs, and the dog may cough up blood and have difficulty breathing. Secondary bacterial infections, including bacterial pneumonia, can also make the condition worse.
Once a dog is infected, 80% will have obvious symptoms, and the rest will not have obvious symptoms.
Canine influenza incubation period
The incubation period for viruses in the natural environment is usually 2 to 3 days.
Canine influenza Transm
Canine influenza virus can be transmitted to infected dogs through the aerosolized respiratory secretions (sputum and saliva) of infected dogs, or by moving contaminated objects (clothing between infected and uninfected dogs) , Toys, air) and other dogs. Therefore, if a dog has a cough or other signs of respiratory disease, the owner should not allow other dogs to contact their dog, and at the same time, the dog's clothes, items, equipment, etc. should be cleaned and disinfected. Of course, it does not rule out that some dogs may not show obvious symptoms at the beginning, so it may be difficult to take preventive measures.
Canine influenza does spread in areas where there are more dogs, such as a pet shelter, a litter of dogs, or a place where dogs meet.
Canine influenza infection source
The death rate of this deadly flu may be as high as 8%, which has caused more than 100 seal pups in the Northeastern US waters to die from pneumonia, which may threaten human health. Scientists believe that this H3N8 (H means outer membrane hemagglutinin, N means neuraminidase) dog flu was mutated from horses 5 years ago and transmitted to dogs, which can attack human nasal proteins and human upper respiratory tract mucosa.
Canine influenza H3N2
H3N2 influenza A is a respiratory disease caused by myxoviruses and can be transmitted through the respiratory tract of many animals (dogs, chickens, ducks, etc.). Patients usually show symptoms of common flu, and in severe cases sometimes diarrhea and vomiting, pneumonia, respiratory failure and even death. The effective prevention method now is vaccination.
H3N2 influenza is a respiratory disease caused by the H3N2 influenza virus. It can spread through the respiratory tract. Patients usually show symptoms of common flu, but can also cause death. An effective precaution is vaccination.
Canine influenza H3N8
H3N8 is a subtype of influenza A virus, which is believed to originate from the large-scale human flu of 1889 and 1990. This influenza virus was found in wild ducks in 1997 and was found in 2004. It is transmitted to dogs, and because dogs do not have the natural immunity to the virus, they can easily spread from dog to dog.
Canine influenza treatment
Influenza is usually viral and requires isolation, symptomatic treatment, appetite regulation, and physical health. In the case of fever, advanced physical cooling has no obvious effect, and the fever needle can be repelled. If coughing occurs, medications for cough and phlegm can be used, and can be atomized if necessary. You can take antibiotics according to inflammation indicators.
Prevention of Canine influenza
The best way to prevent it is to maintain a dog's balanced diet and allow him to exercise enough to improve his body's immunity. Take it less often when you are in a dog-dense area. In addition, pay attention to the status of your dog's companion. If you find that you have a cold, isolate them in time.
What is poultry influenza?
Types of avian influenza virus
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an influenza A virus. Influenza viruses belong to the orthomyxoviridae family of RNA viruses and are divided into three types: A, B, and C. Among them, influenza A virus is more common in birds, and some types A can also infect various mammals and humans such as pigs, horses, seals and whales; influenza B and C viruses are found in seals and pigs, respectively.
Avian influenza virus structure
Influenza A virus is polymorphic, with a spherical diameter of 80 to 120 nm and a capsule. The genome is segmented, single-stranded negative-strand RNA. According to the antigenicity of the outer membrane hemagglutinin (H) / neuraminidase (N) protein, it can be divided into 16 H subtypes (H1 to H16) and 9 N subtypes (N1 to N9). The main subtypes of avian influenza virus that infect humans are H5N1, H9N2, and H7N7. Among them, patients infected with H5N1 are seriously ill and have a high mortality rate.
How does avian influenza spread?
It is mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract. It is infected through close contact with infected birds and their secretions, excreta, virus-contaminated water, and direct contact with the virus strain. Contaminated waterfowl contain high levels of the virus in the feces and transmit the flu virus from the fecal-oral route through contaminated water sources. No hidden infection has been found in humans, and there is no definitive evidence of human-to-human transmission.
Influenza viruses predate DNA. The H5N1 virus has spread in chicken flocks, and if it infects pigs or humans, its reproduction speed will rapidly increase.
In 1997, a poultry outbreak in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China reported a case of human infection with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus.
Many patients become infected with the H5N1 avian influenza virus. Common initial symptoms are high fever (38 degrees or above) and cough. Symptoms and signs affecting the lower respiratory tract have been reported, including dyspnea or shortness of breath. Upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat or rhinitis are less common.
Other symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nosebleeds or bleeding gums and chest pain have been reported in the clinical course of some patients. Complications of infection include hypoxemia, multiple organ dysfunction, and secondary bacterial and fungal infections.
Humans become infected with avian influenza virus primarily through contact with infected birds (live or dead) or their faeces, or through contact with a contaminated environment. The ability of bird flu virus to spread from human to human is very low. From time to time, some countries have reported bird flu outbreaks in birds and occasional human infections.
There are two main transmission routes: direct transmission to humans via live poultry or its pollutants, or humans via intermediate hosts (eg, pigs).
Fever, cough and other symptoms of acute respiratory infections, especially high fever and difficulty breathing. Typical viral pneumonia, with acute onset, has symptoms of respiratory tract infections such as fever (above 38 ° C) and cough at the early stage of the disease. Severe pneumonia-related manifestations such as dyspnea occur within 5-7 days of onset, and they progress progressively. Some cases can rapidly develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome and die.
As of 2017, multiple H7N9 vaccine candidate strains have passed the WHO safety assessment and can be used for vaccine development. On this basis, H7N9 inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine and recombinant vaccine have achieved good research results. Some pharmaceutical companies have also submitted applications for clinical trials of vaccines, and the development of the H7N9 vaccine has been progressing at different times.
What is H7N9 virus?
The H7N9 subtype avian influenza virus is a type of influenza A. It was previously only found in birds and no human infection was found.
According to the diagnosis and treatment plan, clinical diagnosis and confirmed patients should be treated in isolation. Symptomatic treatment can inhale oxygen, apply antipyretics, cough and expectorants, etc., and should apply anti-influenza virus drugs as soon as possible.
The H9N2 avian influenza virus is a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, which mainly infects and spreads between birds, and can also infect pigs and humans. The H9N2 avian influenza virus currently does not have the ability to continue to infect humans. Human infection is mainly manifested as influenza-like symptoms, and a few cases can cause severe symptoms or even death.
The incubation period of human avian influenza is generally 2 to 4 days, with an average of 3 days. It usually starts acutely, and its early manifestations are similar to common flu. It is mainly fever. Most of the body temperature lasts above 39 °C, and the heat course is 1 to 7 days, usually 3 to 4 days. Headache and general discomfort, a few patients have symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and watery stools. The severely ill patients develop rapidly, and there may be multiple complications such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hemorrhage, pleural effusion, pancytopenia, renal failure, sepsis, shock, and Reye syndrome. Most patients have a good prognosis.
H9N2 subtype bird flu is epidemic all year round, most severe in autumn and winter, and all age groups are susceptible. Sick birds or healthy birds with influenza viruses are the main source of infection. The transmission route can be transmitted from the fecal-water-mouth route through contaminated water sources, or the virus can be isolated from eggs laid by infected birds. There are more and more sources of infection, and the spectrum of infection is gradually expanding.
Reasonable medication to prevent diseases such as bacterial disease and mycoplasma. (1) Add health medicines to reduce the pressure of bacterial infections and thus reduce the incidence of bird flu and deaths caused by mixed infections; (2) Apply telmicoxin, doxycycline hydrochloride, tiamulin, etc. to effectively control respiratory diseases Syndrome; (3) the use of ceftiofur sodium and flufenicol to control E.coli disease; (4) in the virus-prone season, pre-feeding the use of antiviral Chinese medicine to prevent or eliminate as much as possible The pathogenic factors of respiratory diseases, reduce the content of respiratory and digestive viruses, make up for the blank period of immunity, reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases; (5) Proper use of traditional Chinese medicine to prevent kidney swelling, protect the liver, protect the internal organs, improve the body's resistance to infection and Ability to restore health.
The main vaccine strains are:
SS strain SS / 94 strain, F strain, HL strain, SD696 strain, WD strain, HP strain, Re-2 strain, HN106 strain, NJ102 strain, YBF003 strain, L strain, S2 strain, and Re-9 strain, etc., related Vaccine products include single vaccines and combined vaccines.
Which animals can be detected by the BALLYA Influenza test?
The BALLYA Influenza test can be applied to all kinds of pigs, canine and poultry. The characteristics of this product are short detection time, simple operation and low price.
BALLYA Influenza Test has two detection targets for Influenza detection: Influenza antigen and Influenza antibody. You can choose according to your needs.
Significance of testing Influenza
In order to ensure the safety of consumers, reduce the economic loss of the owner of the breeding plant, prevent the sick pigs and poultry from entering the market, and treat the sick pigs and poultry in time, the Influenza Test can play a key role. Ensure the safety of farm owners and consumers, reduce unnecessary losses.
Component of BALLYA InfluenzaTest?
BALLYA Influenza Test
, 20 cassettes
Swab, 20 pcs
PE Groves, 1 packet
Sample Buffer, 20 vialsMini Pipette
Disposable micropipette tips (optional)
Kit Instruction, 1pcs
How to use BALLYA Influenza Test?
For swine and canine
1. Collect the sample with a cotton swab directly from the pig nose which under high temperature and no preprocessing.
2. Insert the swab to the buffer solution test tube immediately. Spin the swab until the reagent mix with the sample (not less than 10 times). Squeeze the swab on the inner tube wall to squeeze out the liquid.
3. Put the test card on the flat table, absorb the supernatant and add 5 drops into the sample well carefully.
4. Stand for 10-15mins at room temperature and read the result. The result after 15 minutes is invalid.
1. Collect the sample with a cotton swab, or take a sample directly from the cloacal. Baby bird sample can be collect from the fresh stool.
2. Insert the swab to the buffer solution test tube immediately. Spin the swab until the reagent mix with the sample (not less than 10 times). Squeeze the swab on the inner tube wall to squeeze out the liquid.
3. Stand for 1-2mins to dissolve the big particle.
4. Put the test card on the flat table, absorb the supernatant and add 5 drops into the sample well carefully.
5. Stand for 10-15mins at room temperature and read the result. The result after 15 minutes is invalid.
Limitations of BALLYA Influenza Test?
BALLYA Influenza Test is a qualitative test kit. It’s only for screening purpose. If have positive cases or suspected case, maybe use other detection method to make a further detection, such as, ELISA, PCR, qPCR, etc.
Swine flu and poultry flu not only endangers the health of pigs and poultry, but also affects the time to market of pigs and poultry, and increases feeding costs. The losses to the pig and poultry industry cannot be ignored. Swine flu virus is not only harmful to pig body health and pig industry, but also plays an important role in the genetic evolution and ecological distribution of the entire influenza virus. It has a potential threat to human health.BALLYA Influenza Test
provided by BALLYA
can effectively detect whether a pig has swine flu. This kit is not only simple to operate, but also has a short test time and high accuracy. Allow the veterinarian to respond accordingly.