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Pesticide Test

Although Carbaryl is a high-efficiency and low-toxic pesticide, it can cause pollution of domestic water due to its water solubility.
Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide and nematicide.
Isoprocarb is a kind of insecticide with contact and systemic action, which is a moderately toxic insecticide.
Chlorpyrifos is a non-systemic broad-spectrum insecticide, and it is highly volatile in the land.
Carbendazim is a broad-spectrum fungicide that is toxic to mammals.
Chlorothalonil is a broad-spectrum, protective fungicide.
Quinolone is a class of synthetic antibacterial drugs.
Avermectin has become a commonly used pesticide
Paraquat is a fast-killing herbicide.
Aldicarb is 10 times more toxic than furandan

Pesticide for plants

Pesticide definition

Pesticide refers to a chemical reagent used in agriculture to prevent diseases and insect pests and to regulate the growth of plants. It is widely used in agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry production, environmental and household hygiene, pest control, epidemic prevention, industrial mold prevention and moth prevention.

Pesticide type

The main types of pesticides are:
1. Fungicide: Fungicide is also called biocide, bactericidal algaecide, microbicide, etc. It is usually a chemical preparation that can effectively control or kill microorganisms in the water system-bacteria, fungi and algae.
2. Acaricide: The agent used to control herbivorous pest mites is called acaricide. Early acaricides used were mostly sulfur and inorganic sulfur preparations.
3. Nematicide: a class of pesticides used to control harmful nematodes. Nematodes belong to the nematode class Nematoda, which is tiny and can be observed under the microscope. There are about 3,000 species of nematodes harmful to plants, most of them live in soil, and some parasitize in plants.
4. Rodenticide: The narrow sense of rodenticide refers only to chemical agents with toxic and toxic effects. The broad sense of rodenticide also includes the fumigant that can fumigate rodents, the rodent repellent that prevents rodents from damaging items, and rats Infertility agents that lose their ability to reproduce, and synergists that can increase the efficiency of other chemical agents to kill rats.
5. Herbicide: refers to an agent that can cause weeds to die completely or selectively, also known as herbicide, a type of substance used to eliminate or inhibit plant growth. Among them, sodium chlorate, borax, arsenate, and trichloroacetic acid have a dying effect on any kind of plants, and its effect is affected by the three factors of herbicides, plants and environmental conditions.

Pesticide for plants

Pesticide for plants are a branch within the category of biopesticides. It refers to a plant-derived preparation that utilizes the stable active ingredients contained in the plant to protect or mitigate diseases, insects, weeds and other harmful organisms after the recipient plant is used according to a certain method.

Pesticide use

Different processing dosage forms of pesticides have different methods of use:
1. Powder. Powder is not easy to dissolve in water, generally can not add water spray, low concentration powder is used for powder spraying, high concentration powder is used to prepare poisonous soil, poison bait, seed dressing and soil treatment. The powder is easy to use and has high work efficiency. It should be used when there is no wind or weak wind in the morning and evening.
2. Wettable powder. It is hygroscopic and can be dispersed or suspended in water after adding water. It can use pesticide sprayer to spray, poison bait and soil treatment.
3. Soluble powder (water solvent). Can spray or splash water directly.
4. Emulsion (also called emulsifiable concentrate). The emulsion is an emulsion after adding water, which can use pesticide sprayer to spray, pouring, seed dressing, seed soaking, poisonous soil, stem coating, etc.
5. Ultra-low-volume preparation (oil). It is a medicament used directly use pesticide sprayer to spray. It is a special supporting pesticide for ultra-low-volume spraying. No water can be added during use.
6. Granules and granules. It is a pesticide dosage form made of pesticide original medicine and filler, which is not easy to cause phytotoxicity. Mainly used for irrigating leaves, sprinkling, spot application, seed dressing, furrow application, etc.
7. Slow-release agent. Pesticides are slowly released during use, which can effectively extend the efficacy period. Therefore, the residual effect period is extended, and pollution and toxicity are reduced. The usage is generally the same as granules.
8. Smoke agent. Smoke agent is a fine powder or ingot made of pesticide, fuel, oxidant, combustion aid, etc. This type of pesticide vaporizes when heated, and then condenses into solid particles in the air to form a smoke. It is mainly used to prevent forest and facility agricultural pests and warehouse pests.

Pesticide usage

Although the preparation of pesticides is not difficult, some problems often arise due to carelessness or improper operation, and should be paid attention to.
1. To accurately measure the amount of medicine and water;
2. The mother liquor must be diluted first;
3. Pay attention to personnel and environmental safety. Especially plant growth regulators are very sensitive to concentration.
Pesticide experts warn: the plant growth regulator preparations used should be operated in strict accordance with the instructions. Increasing or decreasing the dosage at will have a significant impact on the efficacy of the drug and even cause drug damage.

Pesticide effects on environment

The loss of pesticides into the environment will cause serious environmental pollution and sometimes even extremely dangerous consequences.

pesticide pollution

Pesticide pollution refers to pollution caused by trace pesticide residues, toxic metabolites, degradation products, and impurities remaining in organisms, agricultural by-products, and the environment after pesticides are used. Toxicity of residual pesticides to organisms is called pesticide residues, while remaining in the soil may form pollution to the soil, the atmosphere and groundwater.
Pesticide pollution is mainly organochlorine pesticide pollution, organophosphorus pesticide pollution and organic nitrogen pesticide pollution.

Pesticide resistance

Pesticide resistance refers to the use of a certain pesticide all year round, or the application concentration is too low; sometimes, although the application concentration is normal, the amount of drug used per acre is insufficient or too high, causing resistance caused by pests.
Diseases and insect pests have different resistances to pesticides at different stages of growth and development, such as the old age, pests, pupae and other dormant periods of pests. The resistance is generally strong; the resistance of different crops or different varieties of the same crop is also great.
Crops, citruses in fruit trees, crucifers and solanaceae (tomatoes) in vegetables are the most resistant. In some cases, the mixed use of pesticides helps prevent pests from becoming resistant.

Pesticide toxicity

All pesticides are toxic to humans, livestock, poultry, fish and other farmed animals. The toxicity of pesticides to humans and animals can be divided into acute toxicity and chronic toxicity. The physical factors that affect the toxicity of pesticides are the physical factors of pesticides, such as the rated volatility, water solubility, and fat solubility of pesticides. The chemical factors are the chemical structure of the pesticide itself, the degree of hydrolysis, the photochemical reaction, the redox, and the reaction of certain components in the human body. Wait.
Acute toxicity: refers to the toxicity that can cause acute pathological reaction in a short time after receiving a certain dose of pesticide by oral, skin contact or inhalation through the respiratory tract;
Chronic toxicity: refers to pesticides below the dose of acute poisoning, which have been used continuously for a long time, come into contact with human body or inhaled and cause chronic pathological reactions.

Pesticide poisoning

Pesticide poisoning refers to that the amount of pesticide entering the body during the exposure to the pesticide exceeds the maximum tolerated amount of normal people, which affects the normal physiological function of the person, causing physiological disorders and pathological changes of the body, showing a series of clinical symptoms of poisoning.

Pesticide alternatives

The excessive use of chemical pesticides in agricultural production has brought serious consequences such as insect resistance and environmental pollution. Therefore, finding pesticide alternatives is a good solution.

Using the relationship between natural enemies among organisms to carry out biological control of agricultural pests can reduce the use of chemical pesticides and is an effective way to ensure the safety of agricultural products and sustainable development of agriculture in China. However, China's research on biological control is still in its infancy, and it does not have a deep understanding of the occurrence of natural enemies.
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