Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic obtained from the culture broth of Streptomyces fradiae in the United States in 1959. Tylosin is a white plate-like crystal, slightly soluble in water and alkaline. Its products include tartrate, phosphate, hydrochloride, sulfate and lactate, which are easily soluble in water. Its aqueous solution can be stored for 3 months at 25 °C and pH 5.5-7.5, but if the aqueous solution contains metal ions such as iron and copper, the product will become invalid.
The molecular formula of tylosin tartrate is 2(C46H77NO17) · C4H6O6, and the molecular weight is 1982.31. It is white or light yellow powder, easily soluble in water (600mg/ml). Because of its good intestinal absorption, fast diffusion in the body, and high blood concentration, it is mostly used in clinical medicine for treatment.
There are many clinical application methods, such as oral tablets, powder drinking, intramuscular injection, subcutaneous injection, mixed feeding administration, spray medicine bath and so on. Tylosin tartrate is mainly used in the clinical treatment and prevention of Mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Pneumococcus, Erysipelas, Haemophilus, Neisseria meningitidis, Pasteurella, spirochetes, respiratory, intestinal, reproductive and motor system infections caused by pathogens such as insects.
Such as: poultry chronic respiratory disease, chicken infectious rhinitis, poultry air sac inflammation, infectious sinusitis, salpingitis, swine asthma, atrophic rhinitis, swine red dysentery, gastroenteritis, swine erysipelas, mycoplasma arthritis, stubborn livestock and poultry Diarrhea, necrotizing enteritis, endometritis, purulent infection of the external genitalia of livestock, goat pleuropneumonia, abortion of ewe, liver abscess of beef cattle, hoof rot in cattle and sheep.
It is also used in breeding poultry farms for the purification of mycoplasma such as egg injection and soaking. And it has a good effect on the prevention and treatment of mycoplasma secondary infection in the outbreak of toxic diseases in livestock and poultry. It is recognized worldwide as the preferred drug for the treatment and prevention of mycoplasma infection in livestock and poultry.
A. Anti-mycoplasma microorganisms
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. gallisepticum, M. bovis, M. capricolum, M. bovigenitalium, and M. gallisepticum agalactiae), Mycoplasma arthritis (M.arthritidis), Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M.hyorhinis), Mycoplasma pig (M.hyosynoviae) and Mycoplasma (M.synoviae).
B. Anti-Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Erysipelothrix rhuriopathiae and Clostridium.
C. Anti-Gram-negative bacteria
Anti-Pasteurella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Klebsiella, Meningococcus, Niu Mo Gram-negative bacteria such as Moraxella bovis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycobacterium, Brucella, Haemophilus paragallinarum, etc.
Anti-fetal Campylobacter (Campylobacter fetus, formerly known as Vibrio fetus), C. coli (formerly known as Vibrio coli, namely Vibrio coli and other Campylobacter.)
Serpulina hyodysenteriae (Serpulina hyodysenteriae, formerly known as Treponemal hyodysenteriae, Treponemal hyodysenteriae, Borrelia anserina, etc.).
Resistant to Candida, Trichophytom and other fungi.
Eimeria coccidia and so on.
Tylosin has specific effects on mycoplasma, which is a remarkable feature of tylosin. Tylosin has become the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment of mycoplasma diseases in livestock and poultry.
It is mainly used for the prevention and treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia (also called endemic pneumonia in swine, known as swine asthma), Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection (also called chronic respiratory disease in chicken), sheep infectious pleuropneumonia (also called mycoplasma pneumonia), Bovine mycoplasma mastitis and arthritis, sheep mycoplasma agalactia and arthritis, swine mycoplasma serositis, arthritis, avian mycoplasma synovitis, etc.
Swine dysentery caused by Swine dysentery, and avian spirochetes caused by Borrelia.
Tylosin is added to feed to prevent Eimeria coccidiosis in chickens.
Tylosin has a good growth-promoting effect. The rational use of tylosin as a feed additive can not only prevent livestock and poultry diseases and protect their health, but also significantly promote the growth of livestock and poultry, especially for young livestock and poultry. It has significant effects on young livestock and poultry, which can improve feed utilization, shorten the feeding cycle, and increase the economic benefits of breeding.
Adding 50mg/kg tylosin tartrate to the diet has the most obvious effect on the pigs. The average daily gain (ADG) is 0.69kg, which is significantly higher (P<0.05) than the 30mg/kg tylosin group (0.63kg), 40mg/kg olaquindox group (0.61kg). National annual pig feed production is about 40.15 million tons. If the above dose is used as, more than 20,000 tons of 10% tylosin premix will be consumed on pigs every year.
In addition, Mycoplasma pneumonia is a contagious disease of pigs caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is also called endemic pneumonia in pigs, and it is customarily called swine asthma. The disease is widespread all over the world, and it has occurred in major pig raising countries and regions such as Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Oceania, causing serious harm to the pig industry.
Mycoplasma exists in the secretions of the respiratory tract of sick pigs and can survive for a long time in the pigs. Even six months to a year after the symptoms disappear, the mycoplasma is still present in the body and continues to be excreted.
Therefore, once the disease is introduced into the pig herd, it can occur continuously and is difficult to eliminate. Natural cases of mycoplasma pneumonia are only seen in pigs, and other livestock, animals and humans have not gotten this disease. Pigs of different ages, sexes and breeds are all susceptible. The lactating and newly weaned piglets are the most susceptible, followed by sows in the late pregnancy and lactation, while the fat pigs and adult pigs have less disease and milder disease. Native pigs have a higher incidence rate than hybrid pigs and imported purebred pigs.
Tylosin is the first choice for treatment. Tylan powder for injection Zhongchuankang (Tailing No. 1), 10 mg/kg body weight, intramuscular injection, twice a day for 5-7 days.
The results showed that the average weight gain of chickens in the 20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg tylosin tartrate group and 8.5 mg/kg tylosin phosphate group was higher than that of the 40 mg/kg chlortetracycline group at the age of 1 to 3 weeks. And the 50mg/kg roxoxan group, in the 1-3 weeks of age, the weight gain of the 10mg/kg tylosin tartrate group was significantly higher than that of the chlortetracycline group and the roxoxan group (P<0.05). At the age of 1~7week, feed consumption was the lowest in the 10mg/kg tylosin tartrate group (2.03:1), followed by 20mg/kg tylosin tartrate group (2.04:1) and 8.5mg/kg tylosin phosphate group (2.07:1), the three tylan groups were significantly lower than the 40mg/kg chlortetracycline group (2.13:1) and the 50mg/kg roxoxasan group (2.09:1).
From the perspective of economic benefits, environmental protection and hygiene, the appropriate amount of tylosin tartrate in diets is 10 mg/kg. The annual amount of poultry feed is 51 million tons, and the 10% tylenol premix as the additive is more than 25 thousand tons for the whole country.
In addition, after chickens are infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum, they usually only show mild respiratory symptoms, and occasionally contaminants can be found around the nostrils, but nasal juice is rarely seen, and most of them are invisible infection processes. Due to poor feeding management and environmental factors, especially when mixed with other pathogenic microorganisms, obvious respiratory symptoms, increased nasal juice, serous or mucopurulent nasal juice, clogged nostrils, difficult breathing, frequent head shaking or strange sound may occur. If the turbinate or tracheal mucosa is inflamed, the mucus will increase, breathing will be difficult, sneezing, coughing, mouth breathing, and tracheal rales may be seen.
Then, rhinitis, sinusitis and conjunctivitis occurred, exudate accumulated in the nasal cavity and infraorbital sinus, eyes were moist, watery, eyelid swelling, and the eyes protruded like tumors. One or both of the eyeballs are compressed, atrophy occurs and blindness occurs. Systemic symptoms manifested as increased body temperature, loss of appetite, growth retardation, and gradual weight loss.
Tylosin is a specific treatment drug for this disease, especially for chickens with mild clinical symptoms.
Using tylan 500 mg/liter with water for 5 to 7 days will have a good effect. Broiler chickens can use at 500-1000 mg/kg feed for the first time at 1 to 5 days old, 1 to 2 times a day, and then use at 3 to 5 weeks old for 24 to 48 hours, which can effectively prevent and treat the disease.
The cause of diarrhea is more complicated. Clinically, it is manifested as frequent bowel movements, high water content in the stool, and sometimes mixed blood. There are two main causes of recurrent canine diarrhea, chronic enteritis and intestinal parasitic disease.
Canine diarrhea is mainly caused by canine parvovirus, bacteria, food allergies, parasites, etc. Enterocolitis and colitis diarrhea are common.
Symptoms of diarrhea caused by various causes:
When chronic colonic diarrhea is anti-inflammatory, sulfasalazine (40-60MG/KGBW. day, 4-6 times orally), tylosin and metronidazole (20-50MG/KGBW. day, orally) can be used. Metronidazole has a powerful effect of killing trichomoniasis and is the first choice for the treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis. It can be used to treat amoebic dysentery and amoebic liver abscess, and its curative effect is similar to that of emetine.
Tylosin, like spiramycine, belongs to macrolides antibiotics. Tylosin has been widely used clinically after it was successfully developed in the United States. Tylosin is an antibiotic specially designed for veterinary use, which has a good effect on mycoplasma and bacterial infections. Moreover, tylosin is often added to feed, which can speed up the growth of chickens and pigs and improve the efficiency of farms.