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What-is-chloramphenicol

What is chloramphenicol ointment used for?

Posted on  February 17, 2021, Edited by Jason, Category  

What is chloramphenicol?

Chloramphenicol ointment is one of the commonly used veterinary drugs. Chloramphenicol antibiotics are broad-spectrum antibiotics isolated from Venezuela, having inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic Bacteroides, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and mycoplasma, especially for Salmonella, Influenza bacilli, etc.

It is often added to feed to treat and prevent animal infectious diseases. Chloramphenicol antibiotics mainly include chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol. Because it is easy to accumulate in animal bodies and humans, it may cause serious side effects. It is more toxic to humans, and may even have the potential threat of inhibiting the hematopoietic function of bone marrow.

BALLYA provides a chloramphenicol test to tell you if there are chloramphenicol residues in dairy products you eat every day.

1. Chloramphenicol Uses

Chloramphenicol is also called chloromycetin. It is white or slightly yellowish green needle-like, flake crystal or crystalline powder. It is stable and slightly soluble in water, so it should be kept out of air. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It has a good antibacterial and inhibitory effect on most Gram-positive and negative bacteria, and it also has a certain inhibitory effect on some chlamydia, rickettsia and some protozoa.

This product has a good therapeutic effect on salmonellosis and colibacillosis of livestock and poultry, and it is more suitable for the treatment of central nervous system infection and intraocular infection. It can be used to prevent and treat white dysentery, paratyphoid fever, pneumonia, pneumococcal sepsis and pasteurosis in young animals, and it can also be used locally to treat mastitis, metritis, infectious keratitis and foot rot Wait. 10% chloramphenicol alcohol solution is a highly effective medicine for treating animal foot rot.

Chloramphenicol Tablets: generally 0.05g, 0.1g, 0.25g or 0.5g per tablet. Oral chloramphenicol dosage: 1 chicken 0.1g, 1 rabbit 0.1g, 3 times a day; foal, calf, sheep, pig, dog, cat 10-20 mg 1 kg body weight, 2 times a day.

Injection: general finished preparation, 1ml contains 0.125g, 2ml contains 0.25g. Subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous chloramphenicol injection dosage: horses, cattle 10-20 mg 1 kg body weight, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, mink, fox, etc. 10-30 mg 1 kg body weight, poultry 50-100 mg/kg body weight, deer 30 mg 1 kg body weight, twice a day. When intramuscular injection is performed, local coagulation necrosis appears, which affects the hygiene of meat eating, and it can be relieved by subcutaneous injection.

2. Thiamphenicol

Thiamphenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol. The antibacterial spectrum and intensity of it are similar to those of chloramphenicol, but the effect on most Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and pneumococcus is slightly weaker than that of chloramphenicol.

Thiamphenicol has complete cross-resistance with chloramphenicol and partial cross-resistance with tetracyclines. Oral absorption is rapid and complete. The absorption is fast by intramuscular injection. It is widely distributed in the body and is mainly excreted in urine in its original form. It is mainly used for intestinal, respiratory, urinary and hepatobiliary infections caused by sensitive pathogens. It is also used for bacterial septicemia, streptococcus, enteritis, and red skin disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and Enteritidis bacteria, and bacterial diseases of aquatic animals such as crabs, turtles, shrimps and frogs.

The finished tablets are 25 and 100 mg each. Internal dosage: 5-10 mg of 1 kg body weight for livestock and poultry, 2 to 4 times in a row. Each bag of 10 grams of finished powder contains 0.5 grams of effective ingredients, 50 grams contains 2.5 grams of effective ingredients, and 100 grams contains 5 grams of effective ingredients. Oral administration of livestock and poultry (calculated by thiamphenicol) Dose: 5-10 mg/kg body weight. For aquatic animals mixed bait feeding (calculated as powder), use 7 grams of this product per 1 kilogram of feed, 2 to 3 times a day, for 3 to 5 days.

3. Florfenicol

Florfenicol is also called flufenoxin. The drug is white or off-white crystalline powder. It is odorless. It is slightly soluble in water and glacial acetic acid, soluble in methanol, and easily soluble in dimethylformamide. Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic for livestock and poultry. The antibacterial spectrum is similar to that of chloramphenicol, and the antibacterial activity is better than chloramphenicol. It is also effective against chloramphenicol-resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella.

After oral administration and intramuscular injection, the absorption is fast, the distribution is wide, and the effective blood concentration is maintained for a long time. It is mainly used for bacterial diseases of cattle, pigs, chickens and fish, such as respiratory infections and mastitis of cattle, pleuropneumonia, yellow scour, white scour of pigs, colibacillosis and pasteurosis of chickens.

10% powder: oral dosage (calculated as florfenicol), pigs and chickens 20-30 mg 1 kg body weight, twice a day for 3 to 5 days; fish 10-15 mg 1 kg body weight, once a day, for 3-5 days.

Notes when applying chloramphenicol

Notes-when-applying-chloramphenicol
Notes-when-applying-chloramphenicol
  1. It is not compatible with alkaline or acidic drugs, such as sodium bicarbonate, artificial salt and other alkaline drugs, to prevent chloramphenicol from being destroyed and becoming invalid.
  2. The collocation of acidic drugs and aminotoxins can cause precipitation, causing malabsorption by intramuscular injection, and embolization of blood vessels by intravenous injection, and even life-threatening circumstance. Commonly used acid drugs are penicillins, streptomycin, calcium gluconate, procaine hydrochloride and so on.
  3. Not compatible with astringent and adsorbed drugs. Tannin, kaolin, medicinal charcoal, etc. can adsorb amomycin and reduce the efficacy.
  4. Do not inject intravenously.
  5. Do not use great amounts for the piglets.
  6. Do not give it orally to adult ruminants.
  7. Do not give dogs repeatedly excessive dosage, because it is easy to cause aplastic anemia and hemolytic anemia.

Chloramphenicol Side Effects

Chloramphenicol can cause serious adverse reactions to the human hematopoietic system. Its use for children can cause circulatory failure, anemia, and even aplastic anemia. So, if chloramphenicol appears in people's daily food, it will undoubtedly bring us great harm.

Sampling from the State Food and Drug Administration showed that 4 batches of honey samples produced by 4 honey manufacturers including Henan Baiyi Bee Industry Co., Ltd. were found banned veterinary drug chloramphenicol.

This time, during the random inspection by the State Food and Drug Administration, 52 batches of bee products were sampled and the number of unqualified samples was 4 batches. The unqualified test item was chloramphenicol. The bee products sampled this time include 13 indicators including heavy metals such as lead in bee products, veterinary drug residues such as chloramphenicol, food additives such as benzoic acid and sorbic acid, and microbial indicators.

According to experts from the Shenyang Veterinary Medicine and Feed Supervision Institute, the veterinary drug chloramphenicol is an antibiotic, mainly used for typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and other Salmonella and Bacteroides fragilis infections. However, chloramphenicol has serious adverse reactions to the human hematopoietic system. If used for a long time, it can cause adverse reactions such as optic neuritis and vitamin deficiency due to imbalance of the flora. And uses in children can cause circulatory failure, anemia, bleeding tendency and repeated infections, and even induce aplastic anemia. Chloramphenicol was once a widely used agricultural antibiotic, but it was later found to have serious adverse effects on the human hematopoietic system, and it was banned in China as early as 2002.

In recent years, news of the detection of chloramphenicol in honey has hardly been interrupted. There are many well-known brands smudged by the scandal. In 2013, the products of Guangzhou Conghuarun Zhiyuan Bee Industry Co., Ltd. were found to contain chloramphenicol; in October 2014, the wild mountain flower honey produced by the time-honored Yishouyuan (Beijing) Bee Products Co., Ltd. was found chloramphenicol.

Experts from the Shenyang Veterinary Drug and Feed Supervision Institute say if you want to distinguish whether bee products contain the banned veterinary drug chloramphenicol, then you will try in vain.

In addition, chloramphenicol is a spectrum antibacterial drug, which has a good killing effect on anaerobic bacteria. In the past chicken industry, it was often used as a special medicine for the treatment of pullorum. One chloramphenicol is used in chickens, there will be drug residues, and chloramphenicol will inhibit the human body's hematopoietic function, causing people to suffer from anemia. Therefore, chloramphenicol is prohibited from being used as a veterinary medicine for chickens.

Commonly used veterinary drugs

Commonly-used-veterinary-drugs
Commonly-used-veterinary-drugs
  1. Furazolidone: long-term use can cause bleeding syndrome. If the drug withdrawal period is not implemented, there will be residues in chicken liver, pig liver, and chicken. The potential harm is induced gene mutation and carcinogenesis.
  2. Sulfonamides: Long-term application can cause accumulation of poisoning, and its residue can damage the artificial blood system, causing hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, etc.
  3. Olaquindox: It can promote the growth of livestock and poultry. Because of its good effect and low price, it is widely used in feed factories. But it is a kind of gene toxicant, gonad mutagen, which is mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic.
  4. Chloramphenicol: Its adverse reaction to livestock and poultry is that it is toxic to the hematopoietic system, reducing platelets and blood cells and forming optic neuritis. The enzyme system in the liver of chicks has not yet been fully developed, which affects the liver's detoxification of chloramphenicol and renal excretion. The function is low, so that chloramphenicol is retained. The remaining potential hazard is that chloramphenicol has an inhibitory effect on bone marrow hematopoietic function, which can cause human agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and hemolytic anemia, and have a lethal effect on humans.
  5. Oxytetracycline: long-term high-dose use of oxytetracycline can cause liver damage, leading to hepatocyte necrosis, resulting in poisoning and death. If the withdrawal period is not implemented, the residue will cause the human body to develop drug resistance, affect the treatment of antibiotics on human diseases, and easily produce human allergic reactions.
  6. Gentamicin Sulfate: It is prone to urate deposition, kidney enlargement, allergic shock and respiratory depression when used in chickens. It is especially harmful to the cranial nerve and vestibular nerve, and it is easy to produce drug resistance when used repeatedly.
  7. Antibiotics that are not allowed to be used in exported chicken products: chloramphenicol, gentamicin, thiamphenicol, avermycin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, etc., all of which can cause cancer. There are also some such as penicillin and streptomycin that are required to be stopped 14 days before slaughter; enrofloxacin and tylosin are required to be discontinued 5 days before slaughter; salinomycin and streptomycin are required to be discontinued 3 days before slaughter. For human safety, every farmer should use antibiotics carefully.

Conclusion

Chloramphenicol has a good effect on disease treatment, and it mainly appears in the form of chloramphenicol ointment and chloramphenicol drops. Chloramphenicol ointment is convenient for external use, and chloramphenicol injection is convenient for oral and internal use. But chloramphenicol has strong side effects, so you need to be very cautious when using it.

References

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