Chloramphenicol ointment is one of the commonly used veterinary drugs. Chloramphenicol antibiotics are broad-spectrum antibiotics isolated from Venezuela, having inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic Bacteroides, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and mycoplasma, especially for Salmonella, Influenza bacilli, etc.
It is often added to feed to treat and prevent animal infectious diseases. Chloramphenicol antibiotics mainly include chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol. Because it is easy to accumulate in animal bodies and humans, it may cause serious side effects. It is more toxic to humans, and may even have the potential threat of inhibiting the hematopoietic function of bone marrow.
Chloramphenicol is also called chloromycetin. It is white or slightly yellowish green needle-like, flake crystal or crystalline powder. It is stable and slightly soluble in water, so it should be kept out of air. Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It has a good antibacterial and inhibitory effect on most Gram-positive and negative bacteria, and it also has a certain inhibitory effect on some chlamydia, rickettsia and some protozoa.
This product has a good therapeutic effect on salmonellosis and colibacillosis of livestock and poultry, and it is more suitable for the treatment of central nervous system infection and intraocular infection. It can be used to prevent and treat white dysentery, paratyphoid fever, pneumonia, pneumococcal sepsis and pasteurosis in young animals, and it can also be used locally to treat mastitis, metritis, infectious keratitis and foot rot Wait. 10% chloramphenicol alcohol solution is a highly effective medicine for treating animal foot rot.
Chloramphenicol Tablets: generally 0.05g, 0.1g, 0.25g or 0.5g per tablet. Oral chloramphenicol dosage: 1 chicken 0.1g, 1 rabbit 0.1g, 3 times a day; foal, calf, sheep, pig, dog, cat 10-20 mg 1 kg body weight, 2 times a day.
Injection: general finished preparation, 1ml contains 0.125g, 2ml contains 0.25g. Subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous chloramphenicol injection dosage: horses, cattle 10-20 mg 1 kg body weight, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, mink, fox, etc. 10-30 mg 1 kg body weight, poultry 50-100 mg/kg body weight, deer 30 mg 1 kg body weight, twice a day. When intramuscular injection is performed, local coagulation necrosis appears, which affects the hygiene of meat eating, and it can be relieved by subcutaneous injection.
Thiamphenicol is a derivative of chloramphenicol. The antibacterial spectrum and intensity of it are similar to those of chloramphenicol, but the effect on most Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and pneumococcus is slightly weaker than that of chloramphenicol.
Thiamphenicol has complete cross-resistance with chloramphenicol and partial cross-resistance with tetracyclines. Oral absorption is rapid and complete. The absorption is fast by intramuscular injection. It is widely distributed in the body and is mainly excreted in urine in its original form. It is mainly used for intestinal, respiratory, urinary and hepatobiliary infections caused by sensitive pathogens. It is also used for bacterial septicemia, streptococcus, enteritis, and red skin disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and Enteritidis bacteria, and bacterial diseases of aquatic animals such as crabs, turtles, shrimps and frogs.
The finished tablets are 25 and 100 mg each. Internal dosage: 5-10 mg of 1 kg body weight for livestock and poultry, 2 to 4 times in a row. Each bag of 10 grams of finished powder contains 0.5 grams of effective ingredients, 50 grams contains 2.5 grams of effective ingredients, and 100 grams contains 5 grams of effective ingredients. Oral administration of livestock and poultry (calculated by thiamphenicol) Dose: 5-10 mg/kg body weight. For aquatic animals mixed bait feeding (calculated as powder), use 7 grams of this product per 1 kilogram of feed, 2 to 3 times a day, for 3 to 5 days.
Florfenicol is also called flufenoxin. The drug is white or off-white crystalline powder. It is odorless. It is slightly soluble in water and glacial acetic acid, soluble in methanol, and easily soluble in dimethylformamide. Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic for livestock and poultry. The antibacterial spectrum is similar to that of chloramphenicol, and the antibacterial activity is better than chloramphenicol. It is also effective against chloramphenicol-resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella.
After oral administration and intramuscular injection, the absorption is fast, the distribution is wide, and the effective blood concentration is maintained for a long time. It is mainly used for bacterial diseases of cattle, pigs, chickens and fish, such as respiratory infections and mastitis of cattle, pleuropneumonia, yellow scour, white scour of pigs, colibacillosis and pasteurosis of chickens.
10% powder: oral dosage (calculated as florfenicol), pigs and chickens 20-30 mg 1 kg body weight, twice a day for 3 to 5 days; fish 10-15 mg 1 kg body weight, once a day, for 3-5 days.
Chloramphenicol can cause serious adverse reactions to the human hematopoietic system. Its use for children can cause circulatory failure, anemia, and even aplastic anemia. So, if chloramphenicol appears in people's daily food, it will undoubtedly bring us great harm.
Sampling from the State Food and Drug Administration showed that 4 batches of honey samples produced by 4 honey manufacturers including Henan Baiyi Bee Industry Co., Ltd. were found banned veterinary drug chloramphenicol.
This time, during the random inspection by the State Food and Drug Administration, 52 batches of bee products were sampled and the number of unqualified samples was 4 batches. The unqualified test item was chloramphenicol. The bee products sampled this time include 13 indicators including heavy metals such as lead in bee products, veterinary drug residues such as chloramphenicol, food additives such as benzoic acid and sorbic acid, and microbial indicators.
According to experts from the Shenyang Veterinary Medicine and Feed Supervision Institute, the veterinary drug chloramphenicol is an antibiotic, mainly used for typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and other Salmonella and Bacteroides fragilis infections. However, chloramphenicol has serious adverse reactions to the human hematopoietic system. If used for a long time, it can cause adverse reactions such as optic neuritis and vitamin deficiency due to imbalance of the flora. And uses in children can cause circulatory failure, anemia, bleeding tendency and repeated infections, and even induce aplastic anemia. Chloramphenicol was once a widely used agricultural antibiotic, but it was later found to have serious adverse effects on the human hematopoietic system, and it was banned in China as early as 2002.
In recent years, news of the detection of chloramphenicol in honey has hardly been interrupted. There are many well-known brands smudged by the scandal. In 2013, the products of Guangzhou Conghuarun Zhiyuan Bee Industry Co., Ltd. were found to contain chloramphenicol; in October 2014, the wild mountain flower honey produced by the time-honored Yishouyuan (Beijing) Bee Products Co., Ltd. was found chloramphenicol.
Experts from the Shenyang Veterinary Drug and Feed Supervision Institute say if you want to distinguish whether bee products contain the banned veterinary drug chloramphenicol, then you will try in vain.
In addition, chloramphenicol is a spectrum antibacterial drug, which has a good killing effect on anaerobic bacteria. In the past chicken industry, it was often used as a special medicine for the treatment of pullorum. One chloramphenicol is used in chickens, there will be drug residues, and chloramphenicol will inhibit the human body's hematopoietic function, causing people to suffer from anemia. Therefore, chloramphenicol is prohibited from being used as a veterinary medicine for chickens.
Chloramphenicol has a good effect on disease treatment, and it mainly appears in the form of chloramphenicol ointment and chloramphenicol drops. Chloramphenicol ointment is convenient for external use, and chloramphenicol injection is convenient for oral and internal use. But chloramphenicol has strong side effects, so you need to be very cautious when using it.