Chloramphenicol antibiotics include chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and odorless chloramphenicol. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces venezuela.
It has inhibitory effect on many aerobic gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic Bacteroides, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and mycoplasma, especially for Salmonella, Influenza bacillus and Bacteroides, etc.
Chloramphenicol was successfully isolated for the first time in 1947, and it was synthesized chemically the following year. It was used as an effective antibiotic for the treatment of typhoid fever, rickettsial disease and other infectious diseases, but a few patients developed aplastic anemia after applying chloramphenicol.
This is a serious complication of the patient's bone marrow hematopoietic dysfunction caused by the drug, so its wide clinical application is limited.
2. Chloramphenicol Mechanism of action
The 70S ribosome of bacterial cells is the main cellular component for protein synthesis, and it includes two subunits, 50S and 30S.
Chloramphenicol reversibly binds to the 50S subunit to block the action of transpeptidylase, interferes with the amino acid-tRNA terminal with amino acids and the 50S subunit binding, thereby hindering the formation of new peptide chains and inhibiting protein synthesis.
Since chloramphenicol can also bind to the 70S of human mitochondria, it can also inhibit the protein synthesis of human mitochondria, causing toxicity to the human body.
Because the binding of chloramphenicol to 70S ribosomes is reversible, it is considered to be a bacteriostatic antibiotic, but it can also have a bactericidal effect on certain bacteria at high drug concentrations, and it can even be effective against influenza bacilli at low concentrations.
3. Effects of Chloramphenicol
It has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial effect in vitro, including aerobic gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, rickettsia, spirochetes and chlamydia. It has bactericidal effect on the following bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis.
It has only antibacterial effect on the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, Group B hemolytic streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, paratyphoid Anaerobic bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Bacteroides fragilis.
The following bacteria are usually resistant to chloramphenicol: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Serratia marcescens, Indole-positive Proteus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. This product is a bacteriostatic agent.
Chloramphenicol is fat-soluble, diffuses into bacterial cells, and reversibly binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, blocking the growth of the peptide chain (possibly due to the inhibition of the effect of transpeptidase), thus inhibiting the formation of the peptide chain, thereby preventing protein synthesis.
Chloramphenicol is used to treat various bacterial infections in dogs and cats, including skin infections, wound infections, bone infections, central nervous system infections (encephalitis, meningitis), pneumonia, and intestinal infections (such as diarrhea).
Chloramphenicol has been used to treat single-cell pathogen infections in pets and tick-borne diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chloramphenicol is not effective against infections caused by parasites (intestinal worms), mites, viruses or fungi.
The Harm of Chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and has been widely used in animal husbandry. However, chloramphenicol has strong side effects and toxic effects.
If chloramphenicol remains in food animals, it can be passed to humans through the food chain, and long-term trace intake not only causes the normal human intestinal flora imbalance, but also causes a variety of diseases and harms.
Many countries in the world prohibit the use of this drug in the production of food animals and stipulate that Chloramphenicol used in animal products cannot be detected.
There are multiple detection methods for chloramphenicol residues, and different detection methods have different detection limits. The detection limit has become the focus of attention, and the detection limit of developed countries is stricter.
Some data show that if long-term ingestion of food containing chloramphenicol residues in small amounts can not only make E. coli, Salmonella and other strains resistant to bacteria, but also cause the body's normal flora imbalance, thereby leading to various diseases.
The most harmful effect is the inhibition of bone marrow hematopoietic function. It usually causes the reversible reduction of various types of blood cells. This reaction is related to the dose and the course of treatment. Once these symptoms are discovered, the drug should be stopped in time.
Infants and young children have poor liver development, poor excretion, and restricted chloramphenicol metabolism and detoxification processes, which leads to accumulation of drugs in the body and circulatory failure, commonly known as "grey baby syndrome".
The European Union, the United States and other countries stipulate that the residue limit of chloramphenicol in animal-derived foods is "zero tolerance", that is, no detection. Under this situation, China has also formulated various measures to prohibit the use of chloramphenicol.
However, due to its low price and remarkable curative effect, the phenomenon of clinical use of chloramphenicol is still existed, resulting in frequent detection of chloramphenicol in China's exported livestock products, which has seriously affected China's foreign trade sales and the international image of products.
Features of Chloramphenicol Test
1. 7min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection Method of Chloramphenicol Test
Chloramphenicol Test, based on colloidal gold competition method, is used for testing Chloramphenicol residues in milk sample and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Chloramphenicol Test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection limit of Chloramphenicol Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
Importance of Chloramphenicol Test
Chloramphenicol Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.