2. If C & T are invisible, it’s invalid detection, repeat testing again.
Refer to the instruction
Trivia questions : What is Beta lactam?
What is beta lactam?
Cyclic amides with Greek letters for the number of rings: β-lactam
(four-membered ring). Such antibiotics have the advantages of strong bactericidal activity, low toxicity, wide indications and good clinical efficacy. The chemical structure of this class of drugs, especially the side chain changes, has formed many antibiotics with different antibacterial spectrum and antibacterial effects, as well as various clinical pharmacological properties.
Beta lactam structure
Structural features are beta lactam ring, 5-membered ring is penicillin series, 6-membered ring is cephalosporin series.
Beta lactam ring
The molecule has a carboxyl group at one end and an amino group at one end. The molecule itself is a cyclic structure formed by amidation. The β-lactam ring is a traditional template for antibiotics, and many new entities can be created by changing attached attachments.
Beta lactamase test
Methods for detecting β-lactamase include acidity method and iodine method.
Acidity measurement method: Use β-lactamase to hydrolyze penicillin to penicillin acid, the pH value drops below 6.8, use phenol red indicator, the color is red (purple) (stock solution: citrate buffer pH 8.5) → yellow (Below pH6.8).
Determination method of starch iodine: β-lactamase destroys the β-lactam ring, and iodine binds to the opened β-lactam ring to make the blue starch-iodine complex colorless.
Beta lactam mechanism of action
The mechanisms of action of various β-lactam antibiotics are similar. They can inhibit cell wall mucin synthetase, penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), thereby hindering cell wall mucin synthesis, causing bacterial cell wall defects, Body swelling and lysis. In addition, the lethal effect on bacteria should include triggering the bacteria's autolysin activity, and mutant strains lacking autolysin showed resistance. Animals have no cell wall and are not affected by β-lactam drugs. Therefore, this class of drugs has a selective bactericidal effect on bacteria and has low toxicity to the host.
Some beta lactam examples
Extended spectrum beta lactam
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is a β-lactamase characterized by inactivation of narrow-spectrum and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, mono cyclic antibiotics, and anti-Gram-negative penicillin.
Penicillin beta lactam
Penicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic. It refers to a class of antibiotics containing penicillin in the molecule, which can destroy the cell wall of bacteria and play a bactericidal effect during the reproduction of bacterial cells. Refined antibiotics.
Cephalosporin beta lactam
Cephalosporins are widely used antibiotics. Cephalosporins contain cephem semi-synthetic antibiotics. They belong to β-lactam antibiotics and are derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) in β-lactam antibiotics. Sterilization mechanism.
Beta lactam drugs
Beta lactam antibiotics
refer to a large class of antibiotics with a beta-lactam ring
in their chemical structure, including the most commonly used penicillin and cephalosporins in the clinical structure, as well as newly developed cephalomycins, thiomycins, and mono cyclic beta-lactam and other atypical beta-lactam antibiotics. Such antibiotics have the advantages of strong bactericidal activity, low toxicity, wide indications and good clinical efficacy. Essentially all antibiotics that include a beta-lactam core in their molecular structure are beta-lactam antibiotics. It is the most widely used class of antibiotics available.
Beta lactamase inhibitors
β-lactamase inhibitors are a new class of β-lactam drugs. Plasmid delivery produces β-lactamase, which causes hydrolysis of some drugs' β-lactam ring and inactivation. It is the main way that pathogens are resistant to some common β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins).
Beta lactam side effects
Side effects of beta-lactam antibiotics include: diarrhea, dizziness, rashes, urticaria, overlapping infections, and occasionally beta-lactam antibiotics can cause fever, vomiting, erythema, dermatitis, angioedema, and pseudo membrane enteritis.
Beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors are often painful and inflamed when injected at the same time.
Beta lactam allergy
Immune hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics. An allergy to one penicillin indicates a potential allergy to all penicillin, but the cross-reactivity between β-lactams is variable. About 10% of patients are allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics.
Trivia questions : What is Tetracycline?
What is tetracycline?
is the most basic compound in the tetracycline family of antibiotics. Both itself and its salts are yellow or pale yellow crystals, which are extremely stable in a dry state. Except for chlortetracycline, other aqueous solutions of the tetracycline family are quite stable. Tetracycline is soluble in dilute acids and bases, slightly soluble in water and lower alcohols, but insoluble in ether and petroleum ether. Tetracycline antibiotics include chlortetracycline
, and tetracycline that have a common chemical structure parent.
Tetracycline has a molecular formula of C22H24N2O8 and a molecular weight of 444.45. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Yellow crystal, bitter, melting point 170 ~ 175 ℃ (decomposed). Slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol and acetone, stable in the air, but easy to absorb moisture, discolored by strong sunlight.
Tetracycline generic name
The term "tetracycline" is also used to indicate the tetra cyclic system of the compound; "tetracycline" is a related substance that contains the same tetra cyclic system.
How does tetracycline work?
Tetracycline mechanism of action
form a reversible conjugate with the 30S sub unit of the bacterial inner ribosomes, inhibiting protein synthesis and exerting antibacterial effects. When the antibiotic concentration is low, this reversible competitive binding will also lose effect, and the protein synthesis of bacteria will continue. Tetracycline can also inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis by binding to the mitochondrial 70S sub unit. The ability of tetracycline to bind to the ribosome 80S sub unit of eukaryotic cells is relatively weak, so the ability to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is also weak. This may be the reason for the strong antibacterial effect of tetracycline and the small side effects on humans.
Take tetracycline completely according to your prescription. Follow all instructions on the prescription label. Do not take the drug in large or small doses for longer than recommended. Take tetracycline on an empty stomach at least one hour before or two hours after meals. Do not take this medicine with milk or other dairy products
unless your doctor tells you. Dairy products make it harder for your body to absorb drugs.
Tetracycline drug class
Tetracycline is a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by actinomycetes, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and the semi-synthetic derivative methotomycin, potent The structure of erythromycin, dimethylaminotetracycline and the like all contain a tetraphenyl original skeleton.
It is an antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This antibiotic can only treat bacterial infections. It does not apply to viral infections (e.g. common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed may render it unusable for future infections. Tetracycline can also be used in combination with anti-ulcer drugs to treat certain types of gastric ulcers.
Note: Application of this product over 2g / day may cause fatal liver toxicity. This product has no specific antagonists. When the drug is overdose, it is mainly symptomatic therapy and re hydration supportive therapy.
Tetracycline doxycycline is an antibiotic and a tetracycline, which can treat Chlamydia mycoplasma infection. Its hydrochloride is usually light yellow or yellow crystalline powder; stinky and bitter. Soluble in water or methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol or acetone, insoluble in chloroform. Some synthetic drugs containing doxycycline are susceptible to the complexation of metal ions in water, forming a red solution, reducing the efficacy.
What does tetracycline treat
Tetracycline for acne
Tetracycline works by slowing down the growth of bacteria that cause acne. It also works as an anti-inflammatory agent, helping to reduce button swelling and red. Tetracycline is used to treat moderate to severe acne, although it is sometimes prescribed for particularly persistent mild inflammatory acne.
Tetracycline for periodontics
Some scholars have shown that the use of tetracycline to treat various periodontitis-related suspected bacteria has a strong antibacterial effect, especially for P. gingivalis and Actinomycetes; at the same time, it can adhere to the surface of tooth root. Not easily washed away by gums crepuscular fluid, and then maintain antibacterial activity for a long time. Tetracycline drugs not only have bacteriostatic effects, but also have the ability to regulate the host body, and the main response of the host body is the non-bacterial properties of the tetracycline drugs.
Tetracycline side effects
Tetracycline adverse effects
It is not very toxic. However, common side effects are common, such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and secondary infections; children under 5 years of age can cause dental enamel hypoplasia, yellow teeth, caries formation, and slow bone growth; repeated use can cause double infections Liver damage
, thrombophlebitis; disabled in late pregnancy.
Allergies to tetracycline are one of the side effects of tetracycline. Mild allergic reactions, skin rashes, edema and urticaria, severe cases will cause panic and chest tightness, anaphylactic shock, causing life threatening.
Because this product can cause liver damage, people with existing liver disease should not use such drugs. This product can aggravate azotemia. It is not suitable to use such drugs if there is already renal impairment. If there are indications, it must be carefully considered and the dosage should be reduced according to the degree of renal impairment. Disable during late pregnancy.
Tetracycline side effects teeth
Tetracycline can affect teeth. Tetracycline can bind to calcium in newly formed bones and teeth, cause enamel developmental disorders and yellowing, and make teeth yellowish brown or dark gray. The so-called "tetracycline teeth" can also cause skeletal deformities and bone formation, which has inhibited the growth of infant bones and caused temporary growth disorders. Children under 8 years are disabled. Tetracycline use during pregnancy may harm unborn baby or cause permanent tooth discoloration in the second half of the baby.
β-lactam and tetracycline have been widely used in various industries such as poultry breeding, aquaculture, animal husbandry, especially milk production. Therefore, the detection of β-lactam and tetracycline in milk is very important. Ballya
provides a two-in-one test kit for β-lactam
, which is easy to operate and only needs to be detected once to know the existence of β-lactam and tetracycline. Not only β-lactam and tetracycline, Ballya also provides a variety of antibiotics testing, easy and fast operation, the results are complied with EU standards, allowing us to drink safer milk.