Tetracyclines are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by actinomycetes, including chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and semi-synthetic derivatives of methenoxytetracycline, powerful Mycin, dimethylaminotetracycline, etc., their structures all contain the naphthacene skeleton. It is widely used for infections caused by a variety of bacteria and rickettsiae, chlamydia, mycoplasma, etc.
2. Characteristics of Tetracycline
Tetracycline antibiotics are unstable under acidic and alkaline conditions. Tetracycline drugs contain many hydroxyl groups, enol hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups, and can form insoluble chelates with a variety of metal ions under neutral conditions.
It forms insoluble calcium or magnesium salts with calcium or magnesium ions, red complex with iron ions, and yellow complex with aluminum ions. In the body, the complex formed by the tetracyclines drug and calcium ions is deposited on the bones and teeth in a yellow color.
The teeth will turn yellow when taken by children. After pregnant women take it, their babies may have tooth discoloration and inhibited bone growth. Therefore, children and pregnant women should use this medicine with caution or refrain from taking it.
3. Effects of Tetracycline
Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics that mainly inhibit bacterial protein synthesis, and have bactericidal effects in high concentrations. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum and has antibacterial effects on gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, rickettsiae, spirochetes, mycoplasma, chlamydia and some protozoa. The antibacterial activity of tetracycline antibiotics is similar, but minocycline and doxycycline have strong antibacterial activity against tetracycline-resistant strains.
Tetracycline antibiotics for veterinary use mainly include oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, metomycin, etc., each of which has its own focus on the therapeutic effect, and the dosage requirements are also not the same. It is necessary to pay attention to the specific application of the medicine in accordance with the doctor's advice or the requirements of the product instructions for different types of livestock.
It is mainly used for the prevention and treatment of horse bladder disease, anthrax, pasteurellosis, leptospirosis, pullorum, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, brucellosis, mastitis, metritis, foot rot, actinomycosis, etc. It also has a good effect on swine asthma and equine malis. Doxycycline is mostly used to prevent and treat respiratory infections.
The harm of Tetracyclines
Tetracycline antibiotics are very popular in developing countries because of their low price and broad-spectrum antibacterial characteristics. Tetracycline antibiotics can be divided into three categories according to their uses: tetracycline for breeding, tetracycline for medical use and antitetracycline for agriculture.
Antibiotics for breeding are mainly used in intensive breeding. Numerous animals gather in a small space, making antibiotics a must. A number of studies have shown that pharmaceutical companies and hospitals are one of the most important sources of drugs in the environment.
The specific ways include expired antibiotics discarded by hospitals, antibiotics excreted through patient feces and urine, and antibiotics lost by pharmaceutical companies during the production process. In general, the livestock and poultry breeding industry, and sewage from hospitals and pharmaceutical factories are the main ways to release tetracycline antibiotics into the environment.
Since 1983, some developed countries, such as Germany, the United States, Spain, South Korea, etc., have successively detected the presence of tetracycline drugs in soil and water bodies. 21 antibiotics, including tetracycline, sulfa, lincomycin, etc., were detected in 139 rivers in 30 states in the United States, with a concentration of less than 1.0μg/L. The application of livestock manure to the soil will directly introduce antibiotics into the environment and make them exist in the soil for a long time.
In addition to causing chemical pollution, antibiotics in the environment may, more importantly, induce the production of resistant microorganisms and resistance genes in the environment, and accelerate the spread of antibiotic resistance. These resistant microorganisms can enter the human body through direct or indirect contact to enhance the human body's drug resistance, thereby posing a threat to human public health. More and more evidences show that resistant microorganisms and resistance genes are closely related to the generation of drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria, and the increase and spread of drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria has become a huge problem in global disease treatment.
Long-term use of tetracyclines can reduce the normal flora of animals such as livestock, poultry and other animals, cause vitamin deficiency, fungal reproduction and double infection due to bacterial resistance, and damage the liver. Bacteria are mostly resistant to tetracycline antibiotics.
Some pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcus, Shigella and other strains resistant to tetracycline have accounted for more than 50%-90%, so the efficacy has been reduced. Tetracyclines can affect the growth of fetuses and dairy animals' bones and teeth through the placenta and into milk. Repeated use can cause dental hypoplasia and slow bone growth.
Features of Tetracycline Test
1. 7min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection method for Tetracycline Test
The Tetracyclines Test is a colloidal gold immunochromatography assay that specially designed for detecting Tetracycline residue in raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Tetracycline Test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection limit of Tetracyclines
30-50ppb, the LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
The importance of Tetracyclines Test
Tetracyclines test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.