is a general term for the food of animals raised by all people. In a narrower sense, feed generally refers to food of animals raised in agriculture or animal husbandry. Feed includes soy, soybean meal, corn, fish meal, amino acids, miscellaneous meals, whey powder, fat, meat and bone meal, cereals, feed additives, and other varieties of feed ingredients.
By raw materials
1. Coarse feed (1-00-000) refers to a class of feed with a content of crude fiber of more than 18% in dry matter, mainly including hay, straw, agricultural and sideline products, and dregs with a content of more than 18% of crude fiber Category, leaf category, etc.
2. Green feed (2-00-000) refers to a type of feed with a natural moisture content of more than 60%, including pastures, leafy vegetables, non-starchy rhizomes, fruits, and aquatic plants. Do not consider the crude protein and crude fiber content after drying.
3． Silage (3-00-000) Silage made of fresh natural plant feed and silage with appropriate amount of bran or other additives, including semi-dry silage with a moisture content of 45% to 55%.
4． Energy feed (4-00-000) refers to a type of feed containing less than 18% crude fiber and less than 20% crude protein in dry matter, mainly including cereals, bran, and starchy rhizomes Fruits, oils, grass seeds, etc.
5． Protein supplements (5-00-000) refer to feeds containing less than 18% crude fiber and more than 20% crude protein in dry matter, mainly including plant-based protein feed, animal-based protein feed, and single-cell protein feed Wait.
6. Mineral feed (6-00-000) includes industrial synthetic or natural single mineral feed, mineral feed mixed with multiple minerals, and pre-mixed mineral additives with carrier or diluent.
7. Vitamin feed (7-00-000) refers to a single or multivitamin that is artificially synthesized or purified, but does not include a natural feed with a high vitamin content.
8. Additives (8-00-000) refer to a variety of non-nutritive additive raw materials and their formulated products that are used to enhance the feeding effect and are beneficial to the production and storage of feed. Such as various antibiotics
, antioxidants, antifungal agents, adhesives, colorants, flavor enhancers, and health care and metabolism regulating drugs.
Whether the method of feed storage, processing and storage is proper has a direct impact on the nutritional value of the feed. When the temperature of the feed is too high, the protein may deteriorate. If the oil is stored for a long time or affected by high temperature and light, the fat will be oxidized. The feed is too high in moisture or stored in a humid environment. These factors lead to the loss of feed nutrition and unsafe use. If used to feed cattle, it will affect the health of dairy cows and the quality and safety of milk and beef. Therefore, for the safe storage of feed, the following links should be paid attention to.
(1) Select a good storage place. The feed storage warehouse should be dry, cool, well ventilated, and easy to drain, and have the functions of preventing leaks, preventing rodents, and preventing the ground from getting wet. After cleaning and sanitation in the warehouse, it should be fumigated. Packaging bags for feed should be sterilized by high-temperature steam. Tanks, tanks, wooden boxes and other containers can be diluted with water at a concentration of 100% dichlorvos and sprayed with insect control. Feed must not come into contact with the ground or walls. Boards must be prepared for padding.
(2) Control temperature, humidity and ventilation The relative humidity of the feed storage room should be less than 50%, and good ventilation should be maintained. At the same time, keep the temperature in the storage room as low as possible. Different types of feed should be stacked separately, with a certain distance between the stack and the stack for easy access and ventilation. The bottom of the stack must be raised with sleepers to prevent moisture and ventilation. In high-temperature seasons, fans should be used for forced ventilation to reduce the temperature to prevent mold
, metamorphism, and moth.
(3) Control the water content of feed and its raw materials The feed is high in moisture and prone to oxidation, heating, agglomeration and mildew. When storing feed, the moisture content of feed should be controlled, less than 14% in northern regions and less than 12% in southern regions.
(4) Killing rodents and insects in a timely manner A mouse needs to eat 9-11 kg of feed a year, which will also contaminate the feed and spread diseases. Therefore, the use of equipment, drugs, etc. for rodent control; found feed insects, immediately pick out the insect feed, insecticide treatment with safe and efficient pesticides.
(5) If mold is found on the feed or raw materials, measures should be taken to detoxify immediately to reduce losses. Common methods are ultraviolet radiation, heating and exposure. It is difficult to completely detoxify the moldy feed, and it must not be used for feeding cattle, but should be discarded.