Feed & Grain

People pay extensive attention to foods mainly in environmental protection, organic, green, ecological and other aspects. For example, the animals are feeding for food or not, or if contain additives, etc., the internal impact factors of food safety are less considered, and the feed ingredients are neglected due to environmental factors.

Mycotoxins are sometimes called mycotoxins, which are substances that are toxic to humans and animals by some molds under certain environmental conditions. When humans and animals ingest food and feed with mycotoxins, they will suffer from poisoning, or mycotoxin poisoning. The main sources of contamination of food, oil and feed by mycotoxins are:

When crops grow in the field, they are contaminated, such as scab;
During the harvesting season, grain, oil and feed are not dried in time, and are contaminated by the proliferation of molds;
Some foods are spoiled by rain during transportation;
During the storage process, due to the appropriate temperature and humidity of the environment, coupled with the high water content of the grain, mildew occurs and toxins are produced.

When the moisture content of grain, oil and feed exceeds safe water, as long as the temperature and humidity are suitable, more toxins can be produced in 3 to 5 days, and the production of poison can reach a peak in 7 to 10 days.

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About Feed & Grain

Feed and grain

The variety of food near me is getting richer and richer, but the most we have come into contact with is definitely cereals. Cereals are rich in nutrients. Ingesting a certain amount of cereals every day can ensure people's nutritional needs.


Feed  is a general term for the food of animals raised by all people. In a narrower sense, feed generally refers to food of animals raised in agriculture or animal husbandry. Feed includes soy, soybean meal, corn, fish meal, amino acids, miscellaneous meals, whey powder, fat, meat and bone meal, cereals, feed additives, and other varieties of feed ingredients.

Feed types

By raw materials
1. Coarse feed (1-00-000) refers to a class of feed with a content of crude fiber of more than 18% in dry matter, mainly including hay, straw, agricultural and sideline products, and dregs with a content of more than 18% of crude fiber Category, leaf category, etc.
2. Green feed (2-00-000) refers to a type of feed with a natural moisture content of more than 60%, including pastures, leafy vegetables, non-starchy rhizomes, fruits, and aquatic plants. Do not consider the crude protein and crude fiber content after drying.
3. Silage (3-00-000) Silage made of fresh natural plant feed and silage with appropriate amount of bran or other additives, including semi-dry silage with a moisture content of 45% to 55%.
4. Energy feed (4-00-000) refers to a type of feed containing less than 18% crude fiber and less than 20% crude protein in dry matter, mainly including cereals, bran, and starchy rhizomes Fruits, oils, grass seeds, etc.
5. Protein supplements (5-00-000) refer to feeds containing less than 18% crude fiber and more than 20% crude protein in dry matter, mainly including plant-based protein feed, animal-based protein feed, and single-cell protein feed Wait.
6. Mineral feed (6-00-000) includes industrial synthetic or natural single mineral feed, mineral feed mixed with multiple minerals, and pre-mixed mineral additives with carrier or diluent.
7. Vitamin feed (7-00-000) refers to a single or multivitamin that is artificially synthesized or purified, but does not include a natural feed with a high vitamin content.
8. Additives (8-00-000) refer to a variety of non-nutritive additive raw materials and their formulated products that are used to enhance the feeding effect and are beneficial to the production and storage of feed. Such as various antibiotics, antioxidants, antifungal agents, adhesives, colorants, flavor enhancers, and health care and metabolism regulating drugs.

Feed storage

Whether the method of feed storage, processing and storage is proper has a direct impact on the nutritional value of the feed. When the temperature of the feed is too high, the protein may deteriorate. If the oil is stored for a long time or affected by high temperature and light, the fat will be oxidized. The feed is too high in moisture or stored in a humid environment. These factors lead to the loss of feed nutrition and unsafe use. If used to feed cattle, it will affect the health of dairy cows and the quality and safety of milk and beef. Therefore, for the safe storage of feed, the following links should be paid attention to.

(1) Select a good storage place. The feed storage warehouse should be dry, cool, well ventilated, and easy to drain, and have the functions of preventing leaks, preventing rodents, and preventing the ground from getting wet. After cleaning and sanitation in the warehouse, it should be fumigated. Packaging bags for feed should be sterilized by high-temperature steam. Tanks, tanks, wooden boxes and other containers can be diluted with water at a concentration of 100% dichlorvos and sprayed with insect control. Feed must not come into contact with the ground or walls. Boards must be prepared for padding.

(2) Control temperature, humidity and ventilation The relative humidity of the feed storage room should be less than 50%, and good ventilation should be maintained. At the same time, keep the temperature in the storage room as low as possible. Different types of feed should be stacked separately, with a certain distance between the stack and the stack for easy access and ventilation. The bottom of the stack must be raised with sleepers to prevent moisture and ventilation. In high-temperature seasons, fans should be used for forced ventilation to reduce the temperature to prevent mold, metamorphism, and moth.

(3) Control the water content of feed and its raw materials The feed is high in moisture and prone to oxidation, heating, agglomeration and mildew. When storing feed, the moisture content of feed should be controlled, less than 14% in northern regions and less than 12% in southern regions.

(4) Killing rodents and insects in a timely manner A mouse needs to eat 9-11 kg of feed a year, which will also contaminate the feed and spread diseases. Therefore, the use of equipment, drugs, etc. for rodent control; found feed insects, immediately pick out the insect feed, insecticide treatment with safe and efficient pesticides.

(5) If mold is found on the feed or raw materials, measures should be taken to detoxify immediately to reduce losses. Common methods are ultraviolet radiation, heating and exposure. It is difficult to completely detoxify the moldy feed, and it must not be used for feeding cattle, but should be discarded.


Grain covers a wide range, including rice, wheat, millet, soybeans, and other miscellaneous grains. Cereals include rice, wheat, millet, soybeans, etc., mainly plant seeds and fruits. Is traditional staple food for many Asian people

Grain types

Cereals, not just the seeds of grasses, are, to be more precise, divided into three categories in China:
① Grains: Including rice (Indica, japonica and could rice), wheat (wheat, barley, oats, rye), corn, sorghum, millet, millet, yellow rice, buckwheat, etc.;
② Bean glycine: including soybeans, broad beans, peas, mung beans, red beans, kidney beans, etc.;
③ Yams: Including sweet potatoes, also known as sweet potatoes or sweet potatoes, potatoes, yam, taro, and cassava.

Grain storage

1. Characteristics of grain storage
Grain hulls of rice are harder and protect the grains. They can resist the effects of insect pests and the external temperature and humidity to a certain extent. Therefore, rice is easier to keep than general grains. However, rice is prone to sprouts and is not resistant to high temperatures, so special attention is required.

Most rice (such as indica) has no post-ripening stage, is physiologically mature at harvest, and has the ability to germinate. At the same time, the water absorption required for rice germination is low. Therefore, when the rice is harvested, if the rain and rain are not met in time, the rice will germinate in the field and field. Rice under storage is also prone to sprouts if it is exposed to dew, moisture, or rain. Paddy threshing and aging are not timely, and even the grass is stacked, which is easy to yellow. Sprouted and indica rice have greatly reduced quality and storage stability.

The rice is not resistant to high temperature, and the rice is easy to age in the summer. The rice exposed to the sun or the rice that suddenly encounters the cold after the sun is prone to "bursting".
Shortly after the new rice is put into the warehouse, if the temperature drops, dew will often form on the surface of the grain pile, which will increase the moisture content of the surface grain, which is unfavorable for storage. The moisture content of the surface grain should be reduced in time.

2. How to keep grain
To ensure the quality of stored rice: rice with large water content, high impurities, and imperfect grains are prone to heat and mildew, and not durable. Therefore, improving the quality of stored rice is the key to safe storage of rice. The safe moisture standard for rice should be determined according to the variety, season, region, and climatic conditions. Generally, indica rice is below 13%, and japonica rice is below 14%. The fewer impurities and imperfections, the better. If the stored rice has large moisture and many impurities, it should be stored separately, dried or dried in time, and sieved or selected by wind to remove impurities.

Ventilation at the right time: Due to the strong respiration, high grain temperature and high moisture content of the new rice, it should be ventilated in time to cool down the precipitation. In particular, when the autumn is cool, the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the grain pile is large. At this time, ventilation should be strengthened, combined with deep turning of the grain surface, to distribute the damp heat of the grain pile to prevent condensation. If possible, mechanical ventilation can be used.

Low temperature sealing: make full use of the cold and dry weather in winter to ventilate, reduce the grain temperature to below 10 ℃, and reduce the moisture to within the safety standards, and cover and seal before the temperature rise in spring, in order to safely summer.

About mycotoxins

If feeds and grains are stored improperly, mycotoxins that are harmful to the human body are likely to be produced. Mycotoxins mainly refer to toxic metabolites produced by molds in foods they contaminate. They can enter humans and animals through feed or food, causing acute or chronic toxicity to humans and animals, and damage to the liver, kidneys, and nervous tissues , Hematopoietic tissue and skin tissue.
Mycotoxins can be formed when crops are harvested in the field; under unsuitable storage conditions, mycotoxins can continue to be formed on harvested crops. Higher humidity is generally good for mold growth and mycotoxins production in feed. Temperature is another important factor. Crops under high temperature and arid environment are vulnerable to mold spores. Once conditions permit, mold spores can produce mycotoxins.
Excessive mycotoxins may people mycotoxin poisoning.

Mycotoxin mold

Mold is a type of fungus, which is characterized by a relatively developed mycelium  and no large fruiting bodies. Like other fungi, it also has cell walls, parasitic or saprophytic means of survival. Some molds transform food into toxic substances, and some may produce toxins in foods, that is, mycotoxins. Since the discovery of aflatoxin, the contamination of food by mold and mycotoxins has attracted increasing attention. It causes great harm to human health, mainly manifested in chronic poisoning, carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects.

Mycotoxin testing

Mycotoxins detection is one of the methods to ensure the safety of feed and grains. With the continuous diversification of detection methods, more and more mycotoxin test kit have been developed. Yes, farmers or ranchers can quickly and effectively detect if their feeds and grains contain mycotoxins.


Mycotoxins are an anti-nutritional factor present in feeds and raw materials, and are secondary metabolites of strong mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are produced during the processing, transportation, and storage of feed. It should be said that there is no place in the world that can escape from mold contamination. Mycotoxins are very harmful to the human body, and direct contact with mycotoxins should be avoided as much as possible, so it is especially important to prevent and detect mycotoxins in food. Ballya provides a variety of mycotoxin rapid detection kits, the detection results comply with the European Union standards, not only simple operation, but also fast and accurate.

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