Scientific lab equipment refers to various tools and equipment used by professionals or students working in the laboratory.
Lab equipment and their uses
Acidity meter: measure PH value. Conductivity meter: measure the conductivity value of electrolyte solution. Automatic positioning titrator: acid-base titration, redox titration, precipitation titration, complexation titration. Permanent stop titrator: an instrument for titration according to the indication of potential changes. Karl Fischer Moisture Analyzer: Measure product moisture content.
Gas and liquid chromatography
Gas chromatograph: qualitative and quantitative analysis Liquid chromatograph: qualitative and quantitative analysis Micro sampler: used in liquid and gas chromatography analysis Gas generator: basic equipment Muffle furnace, high temperature furnace: sample preparation SPE Workstation: It is used for solid extraction and purification of pesticide residues, traditional Chinese medicine or complex pharmaceutical composition samples. The processed samples can be directly tested in liquid phase Post-column derivatization: chromatographic sample preparation
Photometric and chromaticity
Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer: measuring the absorption degree of substances to monochromatic radiation of different wavelengths, quantitative analysis Visible spectrophotometer: measure the absorption degree of the substance to the monochromatic radiation of different wavelengths, quantitative analysis Atomic absorption spectrophotometer: quantify the absorption of characteristic radiation according to the ground state atoms of the measured element Colorimeter: measure the chromaticity and color difference of medicines
Optical rotation, refraction
Polarimeter (self-viewing auto): measure the optical rotation of the substance, analyze the concentration, purity and sugar content of the substance Hand-held sugar meter: measure the sugar content and sugar content in the solution
Constant temperature and humidity box: used for drug stability experiment Carbon dioxide incubator: cell, tissue, bacterial culture Vacuum drying oven: powder drying, baking and disinfection and sterilization of various glass containers Low temperature biochemical incubator: storage strains, biological culture, etc. Precision oven: heating and curing of raw materials, crude drugs, Chinese herbal medicines, plasters, powders, granules, granules, water pills, packaging bottles, etc., drying and dehydration Hybridization box: hybridization process
Basic lab equipment
Ultra water purifier: making ultra-clean water Reverse osmosis pure water machine: TOC value of water inlet and injection of ultrapure water system, cleaning verification: environmental protection of pharmaceutical factory Cleaning and disinfection machine: automatic cleaning, disinfection, drying laboratory glassware (laboratory industrial grade) Centrifuge: separation of samples, sedimentation, etc. Sterilizer: disinfection of experimental items Water bath/thermostatic control system: provide constant temperature for experiment Cell disrupter: biological sample processing Heating plate: heating operation Magnetic stirrer: conventional sample stirring Oscillator, small shaker: sample oscillation Ultrasonic cleaner: washing of reagent bottles, extraction of Chinese medicine, etc. Pipette: small volume ~ large volume pipetting Thermostatic mixer, template debugger, suction system: biological sample processing Biological laboratory mechanical mixer: Under the premise of not damaging the activity of biological samples, Dachengdu mixes the samples Biological Microscope: Observe tiny substances
Lab equipment for biology
First, it should be clear that biological lab have different focuses and classifications, such as microbiology lab, cell biology lab, molecular biology lab, and tissue culture lab. According to different biological lab, the commonly used lab equipments are also different.
Commonly used lab equipments in the microbiology laboratory are:
Constant temperature incubator, mold incubator, biochemical incubator, ultra-clean workbench, autoclave, oven, heating plate, electric furnace, electronic analytical balance, magnetic stirrer, water bath, shaker, Centrifuge, cryopreservation box, pipette, PH meter, spectrophotometer, optical microscope, scanning microscope, homogenizer, etc.
Commonly used lab equipments in molecular biology and cell biology lab are:
From the perspective of laboratory workflow, it is divided into sample storage, sample preparation, cultivation process, observation and analysis. Different equipments are required in different working steps.
In general, commonly used equipments for sample storage include refrigerators/ultra-low temperature refrigerators and liquid nitrogen tanks. Common equipments for sample preparation include pipettes, balances, homogenization/stirring series, centrifuges, freeze dryers, autoclaves, and electrophoresis equipments.
Commonly used equipments in the cultivation process include incubator series, biological safety cabinet/ultra-clean workbench, fermentation tank, shaker, water bath, bottle turning machine, PCR equipment, microplate reader, etc.
Commonly used equipments for observation and analysis are microscopes, colony counters, flow cytometers, DNA sequencers, and chromatography series.
In the biological laboratory, equipments such as bottle washer, ultra-pure water series, and ultrasonic cleaning machine may also be used.
Lab equipment for physics
Commonly used in physical laboratory equipment are: (1) Basic measuring tools and equipments, such as meter ruler, vernier caliper, micrometer, balance, spring scale, metronome, dot timer, thermometer, measuring cylinder, barometer, teaching electric meter, ammeter, voltmeter, multimeter, oscilloscope, Signal generator, etc.; (2) General equipments, such as projectors, movie machines, magnetic teaching boards, vacuum pumps, physical supports, power regulators, etc. (3) Special equipments, such as Archimedes tester, Torri deli tester, connecting device, pulley and pulley block, calorimeter, electroscope, electrostatic induction motor, sliding wire rheostat, rheostat box, low voltage power supply, Magnets and needles, primary and secondary coils, induction coils, relays, prisms, optical benches, lenses, spectral tubes, X-ray tubes, Wilson cloud chambers, etc.
Management of laboratory equipment
1. To establish equipment and equipment files
The laboratory must establish a file for each equipment, establish a "file" and prepare an "equipment and equipment list" account book, for easy reference and tracking. The content includes: uniform number of equipment, equipment name, model, technical indicators (range, accuracy, etc.), manufacturer, factory number and date, purchase time, performance status, verification or calibration cycle (certificate), maintenance status, use or the custodian, the current position, etc., to achieve one machine and one file.
2. Ensure the normal operation of the equipment
It is necessary to standardize the operating procedures of equipments and equipment, and each laboratory testing equipment should prepare "operation instructions"; implement environmental monitoring on the equipments and equipment, establish use registration and temperature and humidity monitoring records, and find faults in a timely manner to eliminate the fault and make the equipment The operation of the equipment is always under control and running normally.
3. Verification during the implementation of equipments and equipment
For equipments with high frequency of use, parameters that are easy to drift, often disassembled, transported, and carried to the site for testing, consideration should be given to check during the arrangement period when appropriate. During the implementation, verification is different from calibration. Calibration is to verify and correct the performance of the equipment between the two calibrations. Calibration solves the "quasi-inaccuracy" of the equipment; while the verification of the equipment during the implementation of the equipment solves the "stability" of the equipment problem.
4. The signs of the lab equipment should be managed
Implement label management for equipments and equipment, using green, yellow, and red status signs, and equipments and equipment that pass verification or calibration use green (for normal or grid) marks; when the accuracy of a certain range of equipments and equipment is unqualified, but used for testing When the partial range is qualified or degraded, the yellow mark is used; the damaged or unqualified equipments and equipment use the deactivation mark.