Parvovirus is a non-enveloped, single-stranded, DNA virus. Can infect canines through small antigen transfer and natural mutation.
What is CPV?
Canine parvovirus (CPV) virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus infecting puppies. There are two clinical phenotypes. The hemorrhagic enteritis type is characterized by severe vomiting, hemorrhagic enteritis, and a significant reduction in white blood cells; the myocarditis type is characterized by sudden death. Regardless of the type of clinical manifestations, they are characterized by high morbidity, high mortality and strong infectivity
What is porcine parvovirus?
Porcine parvovirus symptoms
Outbreaks in swine herds are often associated with clinical manifestations such as mummification, reduced litter size, dystocia and repeated breeding. Infection in the early 30-50 days of pregnancy, the embryo dies or is absorbed, causing the sow to become infertile and irregularly estrus. Infection in the second trimester of pregnancy is 50-60 days. After the fetus dies, a mummy is formed. Fetuses that are more than 60-70 days later in the pregnancy have autoimmune ability and can resist virus infection. Most fetuses can survive but can be infected for a long time.
Porcine parvovirus transmission
Domestic and wild boars of all ages and sexes are susceptible. The source of infection mainly comes from sows infected with parvo and boars with poison. The reserve sows are more susceptible than the sows born. The virus can spread vertically through the placenta. The live pigs produced by the infected pigs may be infected with detoxification time. Long or even lifetime. Infected breeding boars are also the most dangerous source of the disease. The virus can be isolated from boar semen, spermatic cord, epididymis, and gonads. Breeding boars can be transmitted to susceptible sows and spread the disease.
Porcine parvovirus diagnosis
Inspection of viral antigens: (1) Direct staining with PPV fluorescent antibody: Observe under a fluorescent microscope, and if the nucleus is not stained in the inoculated cell sheet, the diagnosis can be confirmed. (2) Direct staining of PPV enzyme-labeled antibody: Observe the staining under a common biological microscope. If the nucleus of the normal control cell sheet not inoculated with PPV has no brown staining, and the nuclear staining of the inoculated PPV cell sheet, that is, can be diagnosed. (3) PPV hemagglutination test: If it is found that the diluted sample has agglutination of red blood cells, but the normal PBS red blood cell control does not have autocoagulation, it can be considered that the sample is suspicious and a specific PPV standard positive serum is used as a hemagglutination inhibition test If you can inhibit the blood coagulation of the sample, you can be diagnosed as PPV.
What is canine parvovirus?
Canine parvovirus symptoms
Enteritis The incubation period for natural infection is 4-14 days. At the beginning of the disease, it manifests as fever (above 40 °C), depression, lack of food and vomiting. The initial vomit is food, which is mucoid, yellow-green, or bloody. Diarrhea begins about one day after the onset. At the beginning of the disease, the stool is thin, and as the disease progresses, the stool becomes bloody like coffee or tomato sauce. After the number of times increases, the blood will have a special fishy smell after running around. A few hours after the stool was bleeding, the sick dog showed severe symptoms of dehydration, sunken eyes, dry nose, reduced skin elasticity, and significant weight loss. For severe intestinal bleeding, endotoxin poisoning and diffuse intravascular coagulation can cause intestinal bleeding, which can lead to shock and coma death. When the blood phase changes, the white blood cell count of the affected dog can be as low as 0, and the dog is the majority at this time. Myocarditis It is more common in dogs around 40 days of age, and the aura symptoms of sick dogs are not obvious. Some people have sudden, sudden difficulty breathing, heart failure or even death in a short time. Some dogs died after mild diarrhea.
Canine parvovirus infection source
Dogs are the main natural host, and other canines such as coyote, jungle dog, crab-eating fox and hyena can also be infected. With the drift of viral antigens, the virus can already infect animals such as cats, bears, and tadpoles.
Canine parvovirus transmission
Sick dogs are the main source of infection, with a large amount of virus in vomitus, saliva, and feces. Rehabilitation dogs can still detoxify through feces for a long time. There is evidence that humans, lice, flies and cockroaches can become mechanical carriers of CPV. Healthy dogs are in direct contact with sick or poisoned dogs, or infected through the digestive tract through contaminated feed and water.
How to treat parvovirus in swine or canine?
Porcine parvovirus treatment
There is no cure for this disease. When breeding pigs are introduced, quarantine should be strengthened and pigs should not be imported from the affected areas. Natural infection is required 2 months before mating of primiparous sows in the epidemic area. Serum-negative sows can be mixed with sero-positive sows or inoculated with inactivated vaccines and attenuated vaccines to ensure that new sows are pregnant before getting active immunity to protect the fetus from harm.
Porcine parvovirus prevention
Take comprehensive control measures: Parvovirus (PPV) is very resistant to the external environment. To maintain an infection-free pig farm, strict sanitary measures must be taken, and self-reproduction as much as possible should be maintained. If breeding pigs are required, Ii must be introduced from a farm free of parvovirus (PPV) infection. When the HI titre is below 1: 256 or negative, the introduction is permitted. Strictly isolate for more than 2 weeks after the introduction. When the HI-negative test is performed again, it can be mixed breeding. The affected pig farms should be specially prevented from becoming infected during the first feeding period. The breeding period can be delayed until 9 months of age, at which time the maternal antibodies have disappeared (maternal antibodies can last for an average of 21 weeks). Breed after artificial immunity to make it immune.
Porcine parvovirus vaccine
Vaccine prevention is recognized that the use of vaccines is an effective method to prevent porcine parvovirus disease and to improve the resistance and reproductive rate of sows. Parvovirus (PPV) vaccines have been developed in more than 10 countries. Vaccines include live vaccines and inactivated vaccines. The antibody titer produced by the live vaccine is high, and the maintenance time is longer, while the immune period of the inactivated vaccine is relatively short, generally only six months. Vaccination can be performed a few weeks before breeding to keep pregnant sows strong during the susceptibility period. In order to prevent the interference of maternal antibodies, two injections can be used or the HI titer can be determined to determine the immune time. When the antibody titer is greater than 1:20, it is not appropriate to inject. Infection.
Canine parvovirus treatment
(1) Early treatment of canine parvovirus with canine parvo monoclonal antibodies or high immune serum. It is also desirable to use drugs such as interferon alpha or interferon and immunoglobulin. Currently, there are manufacturers in China that have a certain therapeutic effect in clinical applications. (2) Symptomatic treatment: fluid replacement, isotonic glucose saline and 5% sodium bicarbonate intravenous injection. The amount of fluid replacement can be determined according to the degree of dehydration. (3) Anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, antiemetic, 10,000 units of gentamicin / kg body weight, intramuscular injection or 50,000 units of kanamycin / mixed muscle injection. Vitamin K11 mg / kg body weight, Vk30.4 mg / kg body weight, mixed intramuscular injection. Metoclopramide 2 mg / kg body weight. (4) Do not use dexamethasone to treat parvovirus. May cause severe bleeding. (5) Guoco's high-tech treatment plan: dog Shule + interferon + cephalosporin combined use for 1-2 days.
Canine parvovirus prevention
Canine parvovirus has a strong resistance to the outside world and a long survival time, so it is extremely contagious. Once the disease occurs, the dog should be quarantined quickly, and the kennels, utensils and vehicles contaminated by the dog should be strictly disinfected. The disinfectant can be 2% NaOH, bleaching powder, potassium hypochlorite, 8% chlorine dioxide, and the like. Can be repeatedly disinfected with UV. And disabled for 2 weeks. Breeders should be strictly disinfected and flow should be restricted to avoid indirect infections.
Canine parvovirus vaccine
Vaccination is a basic measure of prevention. However, immune failure may occur, which is related to vaccine quality and immune interference. Mainly due to improper selection of vaccine strains and interference from maternal antibodies. The vaccine should be of reliable quality. The first exemption is usually considered to be about 10 weeks of age, but considering that this is also the susceptibility period for puppies before 10 weeks of age, the dog dual vaccine can usually be injected at 6 weeks of age (the vaccine can break through the maternal antibody interference). At the age of 10 weeks, a sixth-line vaccine is given, followed by two to three consecutive six-line vaccines every three weeks, followed by annual immunizations.
Which animals can be detected by the BALLYA Parvovirus test?
The BALLYA Parvovirus test can be applied to all kinds of pigs and canine. The characteristics of this product are short detection time, simple operation and low price. You can choose according to your needs.
Significance of testing Parvovirus
In order to ensure the safety of consumers, reduce the economic loss of the owner of the breeding plant, prevent the sick pigs from entering the market, and treat the sick pigs in time, the Parvovirus Test can play a key role. Ensure the safety of farm owners and consumers, reduce unnecessary losses.
For swine: 1. Pipetting the whole blood, centrifuge for 5-15 minutes at 2000-3000 r/m to separate the serum. It can also be left standing overnight at 4℃ to separate out the serum. Or test the whole blood without anticoagulant immediately. 2. Take out and place the card on the flat desk. 3. Absorb the sample and add 3 drops into the sample well carefully. 4. Read the result for 10-20 minutes. The result after 20 minutes is invalid.
For canine: 1. Collect a freshly excreted stool sample with a cotton swab, or take a sample directly from the rectum. If screening for rotavirus in animals without diarrhea, use rectal sampling. Dry samples are not recommended; it often results in false positives due to excessive dry sample collection. 2. Insert the swab to the test tube immediately. Spin the swab until the reagent mix with the sample (not less than 10 times). Squeeze the swab on the inner tube wall to squeeze out the liquid. 3. Stand for 1-2mins to dissolve the big particle. 4. Put the test card on the flat table, absorb the supernatant and add 5 drops into the sample well carefully. 5. The liquid will flow the screening hole, if not, please softly squeeze the area between sample well and screening hole. 6. Stand for 10-15mins at room temperature and read the result. The result after 15 minutes is invalid.
Limitations of BALLYA Parvovirus Test?
BALLYA Parvovirus Test is a qualitative test kit. It’s only for screening purpose. If have positive cases or suspected case, maybe use other detection method to make a further detection, such as, ELISA, PCR, qPCR, etc.
Porcine parvovirus disease has occurred on a large scale in many pig farms in China, causing great economic losses. Although the incidence has now been effectively controlled, it cannot be ignored. With the large increase in the number of Chinese working dogs (military dogs, police dogs, guide dogs, etc.), experimental dogs and pet dogs, canine parvovirus infection has become more and more serious, which has brought huge economic losses to breeding. And has become one of the major diseases that endanger the canine breeding industry. As a result, research into the disease has increased. BALLYA Parvovirus Test provided by BALLYA can effectively detect whether pigs have porcine parvovirus disease. This kit is not only simple to operate, but also has a short test time and high accuracy. Allow the veterinarian to respond accordingly.