Macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) are antibiotics with macrolide ring structure produced by Streptomyces and Micromonospora. The big lactone ring is used as a ligand to connect one or more sugars or amino sugars through a glycoside chain. A few cannot connect to sugar.
Macrolide antibiotics, a family of chemical structures that have a common core of a large lactone ring, are all slightly alkaline, slightly water-soluble. This family of antibiotics mainly fight against Gram-positive bacteria and certain Gram-negative bacteria. With the increasing incidence of Legionella infection, the anti-legionella effect of erythromycin has been paid much attention. Among these antibiotics, the most used in China now include: erythromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, etc.
According to the structure of macrolides, this type of antibiotics can be divided into three types: namely, polyoxo macrolide, po-lyene macrolide, and ansa macrolide.
Macrolide antibiotics are mainly active against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative cocci and mycoplasma, but are mostly ineffective against gram-negative bacilli and acid-fast bacteria. Bacteria are more likely to develop resistance to this class of antibiotics, and bacteria may have partial or complete cross-resistance to similar antibiotics.
Among them, erythromycin and oleandomycin can still induce drug resistance. But there is no cross-resistance to penicillin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. This class of antibiotics has low toxicity. Macrolide antibiotics inhibit bacterial protein synthesis and act on the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome to hinder the peptide transfer reaction during the protein synthesis process. However, the mechanism of action of various macrolides is not completely the same, and some remain inconclusive.
Such antibiotics are mainly used for tonsillitis, scarlet fever, erysipelas, lobar pneumonia, etc. caused by gram-positive cocci, and also used for pneumonia, Legionnaires’ disease, campylobacter enteritis, diphtheria carriers and L-type bacteria. Caused by recurrent urinary tract infections. Oral preparations have low blood concentration and are only suitable for mild infections.
Macrolide drugs are a class of drugs with the basic structure of the macrolide ring. The representative drug is erythromycin. Since its discovery and application in 1952, it has played an important role in the field of anti-infection with antibacterial effect. Its antibacterial effects include the effect on bacteria, the regulation of inflammation and immune cells, other effects on the body, and the effects of other unknown mechanisms. More and more basic and clinical research results show that the antibacterial effects of macrolides have certain value in the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases.
With the increased clinical application of macrolide antibiotics, bacteria are increasingly resistant to them. There is cross-resistance between macrolide antibiotics, that is, strains that are resistant to one member of the macrolide are also resistant to other members of this class of drugs, but not completely. For example, Mycoplasma pneumoniae has a high rate of resistance to erythromycin, but it is still effective with roxithromycin and azithromycin. Sometimes strains are apparently resistant to this type of drug. At this time, you should replace other antibacterial drugs, such as quinolones. Resistance is usually encoded by plasmids.
There are still many unknown things to be studied in depth regarding the antibacterial effects and application value of macrolide antibacterial drugs. We look forward to the attention of Chinese scholars and carry out basic and clinical research based on the actual situation in China, especially multi-center collaborative research, to improve China’s clinical application and research level in this field.
The hazards of Macrolides
Although the use of antibacterial drugs in livestock has great economic benefits, the problem of bacterial resistance (including animal pathogenic bacteria and internal microbial flora) caused by the use of AGP has attracted more and more attention in the world.
Both developed and developing countries need a set of strict management regulations, norms and restrictions on feed medicine. Because these resistant bacteria in animals can enter the human body directly or indirectly. As early as 1968, Europe did not allow therapeutic antibiotics to be used as AGP in animals, and only used monensin, salinomycin, and flavomycin as AGP.
The concentration used as AGP is higher than the MIC that inhibits intestinal bacteria. Therefore, the AGP can cause bacteria to develop resistance to these antibacterial drugs and therapeutic antibacterial drugs.
Macrolides such as spiramycin (SPM), tilmicosin(IL), and tylosin (TYL) are one of the most widely used antibiotic drugs in veterinary clinics. It is often added to feed and its usage is second only to tetracycline antibiotics. Due to the lack of corresponding theoretical guidance and the insufficient management of feed additives in China, some farmers often add these drugs in excess in order to pursue greater economic benefits. Therefore, it is necessary to establish accurate, simple, fast, and low-cost detection methods to control the market access of such drugs from the source of feed.
Features of Macrolides Test
1. 7min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection method of Macrolides Test
Macrolides Test, based on colloidal gold competition method, is used for testing Macrolides residues in milk sample and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Macrolides test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection limit of Macrolides Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
Importance of Macrolides Test
Macrolides Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.