The Quinolones Test is based on the Colloidal Gold Immunochromatography to detect the Quinolones residues in honey products. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid or lab testing by various departments.
Quinolones (4-quinolones), also known as pyridonic acid or pyridonic acid, are a class of synthetic antibacterials. Quinolones are antibacterial drugs that mainly act on Gram-negative bacteria, and have weaker effects on Gram-positive bacteria (some varieties have better antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus).
Quinolone antibiotics are members of numerous broad-spectrum fungicides that share a bicyclic core structure associated with 4-quinolone substances. They are used in human and veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections as well as animal husbandry.
Almost all quinolone antibiotics used are fluoroquinolones, which contain fluorine atoms in their chemical structure and are effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. An example is ciprofloxacin, which is one of the most widely used antibiotics in the world.
The basic skeleton of quinolone antibiotics has a nitrogen (hetero) biparacyclic structure. The quinolone and other antibacterials have different points of action. They target bacterial DNA.
3. Mechanism of action
The basic skeleton of quinolone antibiotics has a nitrogen (hetero) biparacyclic structure. The quinolone and other antibacterials have different points of action. They target bacterial DNA (DNA).
The double-stranded DNA of bacteria is twisted into a maggot or spiral (called supercoil). The enzyme that makes DNA into a supercoil is called DNA gyrase. Quinolones hinder this enzyme and further cause irreversible damage to bacterial DNA. The cells no longer divide.
They show selective toxicity to bacteria. Currently, the resistance of some bacteria to many antibiotics can be widely spread due to plasmid transmission. This class of drugs is not affected by plasmid-transmitted resistance, so there is no cross-resistance between this class of drugs and many antibacterials.
Quinolone is divided into first, second, third, and fourth generations according to the invention and its antibacterial properties.
The first-generation quinolones have antibacterial effects only on E. coli, Shigella, Klebsiella, and a few Proteus. Specific varieties include Nalidixic acid and Piromidic acid, etc., which have been rarely used due to poor efficacy.
The second-generation quinolones have been expanded in antibacterial spectrum and have certain antibacterial effects on Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia. Pyridenic acid is the main domestic application. In addition, there are also Cinoxacin and Miloxacin, which are produced abroad.
The antibacterial spectrum of the third-generation quinolones has been further expanded. It also has antibacterial effects on Gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci, and further strengthens antibacterial effects on some Gram-negative bacteria. Of this class of drugs, norfloxacin has been produced in China. There are still Ofloxacin, Perfloxacin, Enoxacin, Ciprofloxacin and so on. This generation of drugs has a fluorine atom in the molecule. It is therefore called fluoroquinolone.
The fourth-generation quinolones are structurally modified compared to the previous three generations of drugs. The introduction of 8-methoxy in the structure helps to strengthen the anti-anaerobic activity, while the nitrogen-dioxy ring structure at the C-7 position strengthens the anti-gram positive Bacteria activity and maintain the original activity against Gram-negative bacteria, adverse reactions are smaller, but the price is more expensive. It has enhanced antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, enhanced effects on anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides fragile, and enhanced effects on typical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydiapneumoniae, Legionella and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most products have extended half-life, such as Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin.
The hazards of Quinolones
Alkaline drugs, anticholinergics, and H2 receptor blockers can all reduce the acidity of gastric juice and reduce the absorption of this class of drugs. Avoid taking them together.
Rifampicin (RNA synthesis inhibitor) and chloramphenicol (protein synthesis inhibitor) can reduce the effects of this class of drugs, completely eliminate the effects of nalidixic acid and norfloxacin, and make oxazine and The effect of ciprofloxacin was partially offset.
Fluoroquinolone inhibits theophylline metabolism. When it is used in combination with theophylline, the blood concentration of theophylline is increased, and the theophylline toxic reaction may occur, which should be paid attention to.
The main allergic reactions of quinolone drugs are: local redness, swelling, rash, urticaria, and photosensitivity. Among allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock is most harmful to patients, and even causes death.
Features of Quinolones Test
1. 15min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection Method of Quinolones Test
Quinolones Test, based on colloidal gold competition method, is used for testing Quinolones residues in honey sample and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site testing by various departments.
Samples of Quinolones Test
Samples include: honey
Detection Limit of Quinolones Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
Importance of Quinolones Test
Quinolones Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.