Kanamycin can be used for oral and intravenous injections, and is effective against a variety of bacterial infections. It is isolated from Streptomyces kanamyceticus.
Kanamycin mechanism of action
Kanamycin is a protein biosynthesis inhibitor that binds to 30S ribosomes to cause miscoding of the mRNA code and inhibit bacterial protein synthesis.
In the current kanamycin extraction process, in the final crystallization process, ethanol is added to the concentrate and then crystallized and then centrifuged. In addition to ethanol, there is a small amount of kanamycin A in the resulting crystal mother liquor. With the kanamycin B component, ethanol can be reused after recovery. Among them, kanamycin A is the raw material for the synthesis of amikacin sulfate and kanamycin monosulfate. In recent years, kanamycin has been developed internationally. The synthesis process of B as a raw material produces semi-synthetic antibiotics through chemical structural transformation. After transformation, it not only reduces the oto-renal toxicity of card B, but also maintains the strong antibacterial activity of card B. product.
Kanamycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. For most Enterobacteriaceae bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Profidenia, Yersinia Bacteria, etc. have good antibacterial effects; Haemophilus influenzae, Brucella, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, etc. are also mostly sensitive to this product.
It is suitable for severe infections caused by sensitive Enterobacteriaceae bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella, etc., such as pneumonia, sepsis, and abdominal infection. Joint application of other antibacterial drugs.
It is a sugar-coated tablet that appears white or off-white after removing the coating. It is used to treat fungal dysentery and enteritis.
1. Gastrointestinal reactions such as nausea and diarrhea can occur.
2. There have been cases of irreversible hearing loss and hearing loss in children after use.
Antibiotic drugs. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of chloroglycosides. It is used for the infection of Staphylococcus, Pneumococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and also for the infection of Gram-negative bacteria resistant to kanamycin and gentamicin.
Kanamycin eye drops
Those who are allergic to this product or other aminoglycosides are prohibited.
1. This product should not be injected directly under the conjunctiva or in the anterior chamber of the eye.
2. Lacrimal sac infection (daury sac inflammation) often occurs in children with lacrimal duct occlusion. In addition to eye drops with this product, it can be supplemented with local heat compress.
3. Do not touch the eyes of the bottle during eye drops. After use, tighten the bottle cap to avoid contamination of the drug solution.
Kanamycin side effects
The most important adverse reaction is to affect the cochlear nerve. The patient's high-frequency hearing is first damaged, and then the hearing loss gradually develops to deafness.
Can also cause kidney damage, its toxicity to the kidney is lower than neomycin and greater than streptomycin.
Oral administration can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. After long-term use, it can cause malabsorption and fatty diarrhea.
Drug fever and rashes are not common, and their incidence is between 1% and 3%; but eosinophilia is quite common, up to 10%, especially when the course of treatment exceeds 1 week. Allergic shock is occasionally seen. One case of anaphylactic shock caused by perforation of kanamycin due to ulcer disease was reported in China. After rescue and recovery, there was no adverse reaction when switching to gentamicin.
Kanamycin has ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Toxicity is closely related to blood drug concentration. When the blood drug concentration suddenly rises, it has respiratory inhibitory effect. Therefore, it is only prescribed for intramuscular injection, and it is not suitable for large dose intravenous injection.
If the bacteria produces an enzyme that destroys kanamycin, it can become a resistant strain. Kanamycin-resistant plasmids are often used as selection genes or marker genes for molecular cloning.
Because sensitive bacteria are susceptible to kanamycin resistance, kanamycin is no longer directly used in the clinical market, but after deep addition, it produces kanamycin monosulfate, amikacin sulfate and other products for clinical use.
1. Combined with other aminoglycosides or applied locally or systemically, it can increase ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neuromuscular blockade.
2. Combined with neuromuscular blocking drugs, it can increase the neuromuscular blocking effect, resulting in muscle weakness and respiratory depression.
3. Combined with frizzycin, cisplatin, ethanilic acid, furosemide or vancomycin (or nor vancomycin), or consecutive local or systemic application, may increase ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
4. Combined with cefazolin sodium will increase nephrotoxicity
5. Combined with ceftiophene or cefazolin locally or systemically may increase nephrotoxicity. 5. Co-administration with polymyxin injections, or consecutive local or systemic application, can increase nephrotoxicity and neuromuscular blockade.
6. Other nephrotoxic drugs and ototoxic drugs should not be combined with this product or applied successively to avoid aggravating nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity.
Kanamycin is a veterinary drug that people often use in bee breeding, but excessive or frequent use will cause the bees themselves and the honey produced by bees to contain residual kanamycin.
Kanamycin Rapid Test Dipsticks can quickly detect whether the honey contains residual Kanamycin. It is not only simple to operate, but also has short detection time and high accuracy, and the test results comply with EU standards.