Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, mainly used to treat bacterial infections, especially those caused by gram-negative bacteria. Gentamicin can bind to the 30s subunit of the bacterial ribosome and block bacterial protein synthesis. Gentamicin is one of the few thermostable antibiotics, so it is widely used in media preparation.
The broad-spectrum antibiotic successfully developed independently by China is a scientific and technological achievement produced during the proletarian Cultural Revolution. It was first developed in 1967 and was successfully identified at the end of 1969. It was named "Gentamicin", which means celebrating the "Ninth Congress" and the greatness of the working class.
Gentamicin was first discovered by Weinstein in 1963. It is a multi-component aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Micromonospora, including C1, C2, C1a, C2a and C2b. The main components of gentamicin C1, C2 and C1a are widely used clinically. Among them, C1a has the highest antibacterial activity, which is the precursor of synthetic Etimicin, followed by C2b, also known as sajiamycin.
Such antibiotics can bind to the 16S rRNA on the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, causing misreading of the genetic code, thereby blocking the synthesis of bacterial proteins, so they are mainly used to treat bacterial infections, especially infections caused by gram-negative bacteria. However, due to the high nephrotoxicity during actual use, their clinical application is limited.
Literature has shown that its nephrotoxicity is due to the specific binding of gentamicin to the 73kDa molecular chaperone HSP73, which leads to a decrease in the activity of the chaperone protein, but its specific toxic and side effects mechanisms remain to be ascertained.
Gentamicin has a good antibacterial effect on various gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria, and against various enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Gagella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae are moderately sensitive to this product. It also has a certain effect on Brucella, Yersinia pestis, Acinetobacter and Campylobacter fetus.
It has a good antibacterial effect on about 80% of methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus (including Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus), but most of the methicillin-resistant strains are resistant to this product. The effect on Streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae is poor, and most of the Enterococcus is resistant to this product. When gentamicin sulfate is combined with beta lactams, most of them can obtain synergistic antibacterial effect.
The mechanism of action of gentamicin sulfate is to bind to the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and inhibit the synthesis of bacterial protein. In recent years, gram-negative bacilli have significantly increased resistance to gentamicin. However, using the existing gentamicin production formula for fermentation production has high impurities, and it is difficult to meet the requirements of the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
3. Pharmacological effects
For Escherichia coli, Aerobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, certain indole-positive Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, certain Neisseria, certain non-pigmented Serratia and Shigella, etc.
Blue-negative bacteria have antibacterial effects. Among gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (including beat lactamase-producing strains) is sensitive to this product; Streptococcus (including Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus faecalis, etc.) are all resistant to this product.
Anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia, fungi and viruses are also resistant to this product. In recent years, due to the wide application of this product, drug-resistant strains have gradually increased. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Indo-positive Proteus have a high resistance rate to this product.
The Harm of Gentamicin
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which has a strong killing effect on gram-negative bacteria in the stationary phase. It is a bactericide in the stationary phase and is widely used in the prevention and treatment of animal diseases.
Gentamicin sulfate is used in chickens, and it is prone to urate deposition, kidney enlargement, allergic shock and respiratory depression, and it is especially harmful to the brain and vestibular nerves of chickens. And repeated use is prone to drug resistance.
Long-term ingestion of gentamicin residues has certain toxic and side effects on the human cranial nerves, which can cause vestibular dysfunction, resulting in dizziness and hearing loss; and its effects on the kidneys are more common, which can damage the end renal curved duct.
The symptoms mainly include proteinuria and tubular urine, which in turn causes decreased renal function. It can also cause allergies and drug resistance. Moreover, patients with poor renal function (affecting drug excretion) can cause drug accumulation and aggravate ear damage.
If humans eat animal foods containing antibiotic residues for a long time, it is easy to induce the emergence of drug-resistant strains, which will make antibiotics lose their value in treating diseases, and bring difficulties to the treatment of human diseases, and some bacterial infections that cannot be controlled by drugs may even occur.
Studies have shown that long-term low-dose antibiotics can cause the emergence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the emergence of resistant strains of Escherichia coli.
Features of Gentamicin Test
1. 7min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection Method of Gentamicin Test
Gentamicin Test, based on colloidal gold competition method, is used for testing Gentamicin residues in milk sample and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples of Gentamicin Test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection Limit of Gentamicin Test
Gentamicin Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.