Quinolones (4-quinolones), also known as pyruvates or pyridone acids, are synthetic antibacterial drugs containing the basic structure of 4-quinolones. Quinolones target bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), hindering DNA gyrase, further causing irreversible damage to bacterial DNA, and achieving antibacterial effects.
2. Quinolones drugs
The first-generation quinolones only have antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, Shigella, Klebsiella, and a few-Proteus. Specific varieties are Nalidixic acid and Piromidic acid, etc., which are rarely used because of poor efficacy.
The second-generation quinolones have expanded their antibacterial spectrum, and have certain antibacterial effects against Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia. Pipemidic acid is the main domestic variety. In addition, there are Cinoxacin and Miloxacin, which are produced abroad.
The antibacterial spectrum of the third-generation quinolones has been further expanded. It also has antibacterial effects on gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococcus, and further strengthens antibacterial effects on some gram-negative bacteria. In this class of drugs, norfloxacin has been produced in China. Ofloxacin, Perfloxacin, Enoxacin, Ciprofloxacin, etc. are still available. This generation of drugs have fluorine atoms in the molecules. Therefore, called fluoroquinolone.
The fourth-generation quinolones are structurally modified compared to the previous three-generation drugs. The introduction of 8-methoxy group in the structure helps to strengthen the anti-anaerobic bacteria activity, while the azadioxane structure at the C-7 position strengthens the anti-gram positive Bacteria activity and maintain the original activity against Gram-negative bacteria, adverse reactions are smaller, but the price is more expensive.
What is erythromycin?
Erythromycin is a class of antibacterial drugs with antibacterial effects. It is an antibiotic belonging to the class of macrolides. It is mainly used for a variety of infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, as well as early syphilis, urogenital infections, oral Infection, etc.
Its antibacterial spectrum is actually similar to penicillin. It has a strong inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacillus also has a considerable inhibitory effect.
Erythromycin is an alkaline antibiotic produced by Streptomyces erythreus and belongs to macrolides.
2. Erythromycin ophthalmic ointment
A. Slight trauma: erythromycin ointment can be used for minor bruises, scratches, or other traumas. The general usage is to clean and disinfect the affected area, and then apply the appropriate amount of ointment to the affected area twice a day.
B. Mild burns: For small burns and scalds, first rinse the wound with cold water, then apply a thin layer of erythromycin ointment to the surface.
C. Mosquito bites: When the mosquito bites are serious, the bitten parts should be cleaned and disinfected in time, and the appropriate amount of this ointment should be applied and applied twice a day for 5-7 days.
D. Nosebleed: Apply erythromycin ointment to the nasal septum in an appropriate amount, 4-5 times a day. It can disinfect and soften the nasal cavity, moisturize the nasal mucosa, improve the internal environment of the nasal cavity, and prevent bleeding again. Do not apply too much to prevent the ointment from flowing back into the inlet.
E. angular cheilitis: angular cheilitis is mostly caused by infection, more common in preschool children. For bacterial angular cheilitis, apply a small amount of erythromycin ointment while taking vitamin B2.
3. Mechanism of action
Its mechanism of action is to penetrate the bacterial cell membrane and reversibly bind to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome near the donor site ("P" position), blocking the transfer of ribonucleic acid (tRNA) binding to the "P" position. Blocking the displacement of the polypeptide chain from the accepting position ("A" position) to the "P" position inhibits bacterial protein synthesis, thereby playing an antibacterial effect.
A. Common oral dosage: 1 ～ 2g per day, taken in 3 ～ 4 times. ② Legionnaires' disease: The daily dose can be increased to 2 ~ 4g, taken in 4 times. (2) Local administration: Treat trachoma, conjunctivitis, keratitis, apply an appropriate amount of ointment to the eyelid, several times a day. (3) Dose for renal insufficiency: patients with renal impairment generally do not need to reduce the dosage.
B. Children: (1) Oral administration: 30 to 50 mg / kg daily, taken in 3 to 4 times. (2) Local administration: trachoma, conjunctivitis, keratitis, apply an appropriate amount of ointment to the eyelid several times a day.
C. Intravenous infusion: (1) Adult: ① General dosage: 1 ～ 2g per day, divided into 2 ～ 4 times. ② Legionnaires' disease: 3 to 4g per day, divided into 4 doses. The high dose cannot exceed 4g. (2) Children: 20 to 40 mg / kg per day, divided into 2 to 4 times.
Erythromycin can penetrate the placental barrier and enter breast milk, pregnant women and nursing women should be used with caution. Those who are allergic to macrolides.
1. Erythromycin poisoning
Common adverse reactions are gastrointestinal reactions, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, mouth and tongue pain, loss of appetite, etc. The incidence is related to the dose. Can induce pseudomembranous enteritis.
Allergic reactions: various rashes, drug fever, eosinophilia, etc. There have been reports of 1 case of allergic purpura and renal failure. Esterified erythromycin can cause bile accumulating liver damage.
The application of high-dose erythromycin can occasionally cause tinnitus and temporary hearing impairment. Intravenous infusion medication can easily cause phlebitis.
2. Erythromycin poisoning treatment
A. Stop the drug when a toxic reaction occurs, and intravenous fluids promote excretion.
B. When severe jaundice occurs, glucocorticoid therapy is given.
C. When an allergic reaction occurs, anti-allergic treatment is given.
The hazards of quinolones and erythromycin
With the continuous improvement of living standards, people are paying more and more attention to the quality and safety of animal products. While demanding rich nutrition, they hope to enjoy green, pollution-free, and low-residue animal products.
However, because of the wide application of antibiotics in veterinary and feed additives, the contradiction of drug residues is becoming more and more prominent. If animal food with antimicrobial drug residues is eaten for a long time, some sensitive flora will be inhibited or killed, which will destroy the dynamic balance of the microbiota in the human body.
Quinolones are a new type of antibiotics. Long-term use of it by cows will reduce the immunity of cows and reduce their milk production. Milk contains antibiotics, causing economic losses to dairy stations and dairy farmers. Long-term use of quinolone drug residues in foods brings human respiratory infections, gene mutations, and cancer.
Features of Quinolones Erythromycin Test
1. 8min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Single test for every target sample
4. Neither professionals nor equipment required
5. Eyes interpretation or quantitative measurement, suitable for lab and field use
6. Room temperature storage
7. Non-toxic and harmless
Detection Method of Quinolones Erythromycin Test
The Quinolones Erythromycin Test is a colloidal gold immune-chromatography assay that detects quinolones, erythromycin in egg and egg products and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Quinolones Erythromycin Test
Samples include: egg and egg products.
Detection Limit of Quinolones Erythromycin Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to manual= instruction for further details.
Importance of Quinolones Erythromycin Test
Quinolones Erythromycin Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.
Components of Quinolones Erythromycin Test
1. Micro-Well Reagent: 8 tests/tube, 12 tubes/box
2. Test Strip: 8pcs/tube, 96pcs/box
3. Manual Instruction: 1pc
Materials for Quinolones Erythromycin Test
1. Sample Tube
2. Pipette & Pipette Tip
How to use Quinolones Erythromycin Test?
1. Add 200ul test solution into a well, then pipet up and down for 10 times to completely mix the sample with the reagent in the well.
2. Then incubate for 3min.
3. Insert the test strip into the micro-well with the sample pad fully dipped.
4. After 5 minutes, read the results.
When antibiotics were first used on humans, we regarded them as "catholicon". As the problem of antibiotic abuse continues to worsen, their resistance has also brought huge harm to humans.
Therefore, in daily life, we should avoid food with antibiotic residues. The first step to self-help: we need to detect antibiotic residues.
How to order a Quinolones Erythromycin Test?
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