β-lactam antibiotics (β-lactams) refer to a large class of antibiotics with a β-lactam ring in the chemical structure. Basically, all antibiotics including β-lactam nucleus in their molecular structure belong to β-lactams Antibiotics, which are the most widely used types of existing antibiotics, including the most commonly used penicillins and cephalosporins in clinic, as well as newly developed cephamycins, thiomycins, monocyclic β-lactams, etc. Atypical β-lactam antibiotics. Such antibiotics have the advantages of strong bactericidal activity, low toxicity, wide indications and good clinical efficacy.
A. Penicillins are divided into 5 categories according to antibacterial spectrum and drug resistance: a. Narrow spectrum penicillins: penicillin G, penicillin V b. Enzyme-resistant penicillins: methicillin, cloxacillin, flucloxacillin c. Broad-spectrum penicillins: ampicillin, amoxicillin d. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa broad-spectrum penicillins: carbenicillin, piperacillin e. Anti-G-bacteria penicillins: mecillin and pimecillin
B. Cephalosporins are classified according to antibacterial spectrum, drug resistance and nephrotoxicity a. The first generation of cephalosporins: cefradine, cefalexin b. Second-generation cephalosporins: cefuroxime, cefaclor c. The third generation cephalosporins: cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime d. The fourth generation cephalosporin: cefpirome
What are Tetracyclines?
The tetracycline family is soluble in dilute acids, dilute alkalis, etc., slightly soluble in water and lower alcohols, but insoluble in ethers and petroleum ethers. Tetracycline antibiotics mainly include chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline.
Tetracycline antibiotics have a common chemical structure. Both chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline are derivatives of tetracycline, the former is chloretracyelin, the latter is oxyeracyein, and the tetracycline family are both acid-base amphoteric compounds.
2. Tetracycline hydrochloride
Tetracycline hydrochloride is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which has an inhibitory effect on most Gram-positive and negative bacteria, high-concentration bactericidal effect, and can inhibit Rickettsia, trachomavirus, etc.
It has a good effect on Gram-negative bacteria. Its mechanism of action is mainly to prevent the binding of aminoacyl groups to ribonucleoprotein bodies, to prevent the growth of peptide chains and protein synthesis, thereby inhibiting the growth of bacteria. It also has a bactericidal effect at high concentrations.
What is streptomycin?
Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Its anti-tuberculosis special effect has created a new era of tuberculosis treatment.
Streptomycin is a white amorphous powder with hygroscopicity. Easily soluble in water, insoluble in most organic solvents, unstable under strong acid and alkali conditions. The appearance of streptomycin sulfate preparation is yellow powder, density 0.38g / L, pH1.5 ～ 3.5, soluble in water, slightly acidic, stable under neutral and acidic conditions, and easy to fail under alkaline conditions.
3. Mechanism of action
Streptomycin is an antibiotic extracted from the culture solution of Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the basic compound of aminoglycoside, which is combined with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ribonucleoprotein protein and plays a role in interfering with the protein synthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thereby killing or inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
4. Streptomyces bacteria
Streptomyces bacteria is the most advanced actinomycete. A family of actinomycetes.
There are well-developed branched hyphae, without hyphae, and differentiated into vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae, and 65 spore hyphae. Spore filaments then form conidia. The morphology and color of spore filaments and spores vary from species to species, and are one of the main identification traits of species. More than a thousand species have been reported, mainly distributed in the soil.
As a tuberculosis drug, although streptomycin has been in clinical use for more than half a century, it is still a first-line antituberculosis drug. It can also be used as a microbial source bactericide, which can effectively control plant bacterial diseases.
6. Side effects
Allergic reactions: Both streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin can combine with serum proteins to form a complete antigen, but the antibodies produced are different, so there is no cross-reaction. Dihydrostreptomycin can be used for those allergic to streptomycin.
Urinary system: Streptomycin can cause mild damage to the kidneys, patients may have proteinuria, tubular urine, etc., generally does not affect continued medication. Other: There may be pain and swelling at the intramuscular injection site, which is generally very mild and does not last long.
Acute toxic reaction: numbness, dizziness, deafness, etc. are more common, most of them appear within 10 days after medication, the shortest appear numbness within 20 minutes after injection, lasting 1 to 6 hours, and the most serious can continue for 24 hours without disappearing.
There is also perioral numbness, dizziness, movement disorders, headache, fatigue, vomiting, facial flushing, and in severe cases, sweating, dyspnea, and cramps are not easy to distinguish from anaphylactic shock. However, acute reactions are more likely to accumulate or gradually worsen, and some cases only appear at the beginning of the injection and disappear later. The acute reaction of streptomycin is generally considered to be related to the impurities it contains.
The hazards of Betalactam, Tetracycline and Streptomycin
After China joined the WTO, poultry products returned from abroad tell us that the technical barriers for exporting poultry products to enter the international market are getting thicker.
To comply with OIE's food hygiene and safety requirements, we must change our traditional livestock production methods, disallow banned drugs and antibiotics exceeding the standard.
At present, the hazards of drug residues directly affect food hygiene and safety, and if not controlled, it will bring hidden dangers to human health.
Features of Betalactams Tetracyclines Streptomycin Test
1. 8min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Single test for every target sample
4. Neither professionals nor equipment required
5. Eyes interpretation or quantitative measurement, suitable for lab and field use
6. Room temperature storage
7. Non-toxic and harmless
Detection Method of Betalactams Tetracyclines Streptomycin Test
The Betalactams Tetracyclines Streptomycin Test is a colloidal gold immunochromatography assay that detects Beta-lactams, Tetracycline and Streptomycin in egg and egg products and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Betalactams Tetracyclines Streptomycin Test