Tetracycline is the most basic compound in the tetracycline family of antibiotics. It and its salts are yellow or light yellow crystals. It is extremely stable in the dry state. Except for chlortetracycline, the aqueous solutions of other tetracycline families are quite stable. The tetracycline family is soluble in dilute acids, dilute alkalis, etc., slightly soluble in water and lower alcohols, but insoluble in ethers and petroleum ethers.
2. Tetracycline classification
Tetracycline antibiotics mainly include chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline. Tetracycline antibiotics have a common chemical structure. Both chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline are derivatives of tetracycline. The former is chloretracyelin and the latter is oxyeracyein.
3. Tetracyclines doxycycline
Tetracycline and Doxycycline are components of a broad-spectrum antibiotic called tetracycline antibiotics. All antibiotics in this class of drugs are derived from the same four-carbon ring basic structure. However, the specific ring structure of each drug is slightly different and should be recommended based on pharmacokinetics and bacterial resistance. Although doctors use these two drugs to treat many of the same infections, they have proven that each drug is often more effective in certain applications.
The main difference between tetracycline and doxycycline is the difference in pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics refers to the body's response to specific drugs. This includes how the body disperses and metabolizes the drug, and even excludes it eventually. For example, the body tissues that are metabolized by tetracycline are different from doxycycline. The metabolic concentration of doxycycline reaches the highest in the eyes, while the essence of tetracycline is mainly in body fluids.
4. Tetracycline hydrochloride
Tetracycline hydrochloride is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which has an inhibitory effect on most Gram-positive and negative bacteria, high-concentration bactericidal effect, and can inhibit Rickettsia, trachomavirus, etc. It has a good effect on Gram-negative bacteria. Its mechanism of action is mainly to prevent the binding of aminoacyl groups to ribonucleoprotein bodies, to prevent the growth of peptide chains and protein synthesis, thereby inhibiting the growth of bacteria. It also has a bactericidal effect at high concentrations.
How do tetracyclines work?
Tetracycline antibiotics form a reversible conjugate with the 30S subunit of the bacterial inner ribosome to inhibit protein synthesis and play an antibacterial effect. When the antibiotic concentration is low, this reversible competitive binding will also be useless, and bacterial protein synthesis will continue. Tetracycline can also inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis by binding to the mitochondrial 70S subunit. The binding ability of tetracycline to the 80S subunit of eukaryotic cells is relatively weak, so the ability to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells is also weak.
1. Tetracycline for fish
Low concentration is bacteriostatic, and high concentration is sterilization. It has no effect on viruses, fungi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect on Gram-positive bacteria is close to that of penicillins, and the effect on Gram-negative bacteria is similar to that of chloramphenicol. It is used to prevent and treat bacterial diseases such as fish enteritis, red skin and rotten gills.
2. Tetracycline for dogs
Canine enteritis medication. Tetracycline (10-20 mg / kg, twice a day for 1 to 2 weeks) can obtain satisfactory results. In some cases, metronidazole (10-20 mg / kg, twice a day, continued medication for 1 to 2 weeks) is better because it also has the effect of suppressing obligate anaerobic bacteria.
3. Tetracycline for chickens
Tetracycline drugs can prevent and treat various diseases of poultry, such as typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, infectious synovitis, infectious rhinitis, chronic respiratory disease, streptococcus disease, staphylococcus disease, listeriosis, spirochete disease and coccidiosis Wait. In addition, it also has the effect of reducing stress response, increasing egg production and increasing hatchability.
There have been three generations of tetracycline antibiotics.
The first-generation products chlortetracycline, tetracycline and oxytetracycline are natural antibiotics, which are widely used because of their broad spectrum, ease of use, and economy. Later, it was found that the chemical structure of these antibiotics is not stable enough, and it is easy to produce drug resistance. Severe bacterial resistance has led to an urgent need to develop new tetracycline antibiotics.
Through extensive structural modification, the second generation semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotics represented by doxycycline and minocycline were found. This type of antibiotics is more lipophilic and conducive to cell uptake, but in recent years its antibiotic-resistant strains have continued to appear, limiting its clinical application.
In 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the listing of tigecycline, which has a significant inhibitory effect on widely-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant bacteria, and the glycyl ring represented by it The emergence of antibiotics marked the birth of the third generation of tetracycline.
Because the necessary pharmacophore of the third-generation tetracycline against drug-resistant bacteria is to have a variety of substituents on the D ring, such as glycyl, dimethylamino, and fluoro. It is very difficult to construct this kind of structure with the previous semi-synthetic method. It is necessary to develop a new and efficient total synthesis method to construct the D-ring multi-substituted tetracycline skeleton, which also marks the study of tetracycline from semi-synthesis into a new era of total synthesis.
Tetracyclines side effects
The first is the obvious gastrointestinal reaction. If you take oral tetracycline drugs, it will directly stimulate gastrointestinal function, causing gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, indigestion, and loss of appetite. Symptoms such as ulcers of the esophagus, stomach ulcers, and bleeding may appear.
Second, there is a double infection, such as the frail elderly, because of the combined use of glucocorticoids and anti-tumor drugs, it will have a double infection.
Third, it will affect the growth of bones or teeth, so children should not use it as much as possible.
Features of Tetracyclines Test
1. 7min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection method for Tetracyclines Test
Tetracyclines Test is a colloidal gold immuno-chromatography assay that specially designed for detecting Tetracycline residue in egg and egg producst and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Tetracyclines Test
Samples include: egg and egg products.
Detection limit of Tetracyclines
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
The importance of Tetracyclines Test
Tetracyclines test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the general public monitor product quality and help humans protect their health.