Cyclic amides, the Greek letter used to indicate the number of rings: β-lactam (four-membered ring).
2. Beta lactam mechanism of action
The mechanisms of action of various β-lactam antibiotics are similar. They can inhibit cell wall mucin synthetase, penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), thereby hindering cell wall mucin synthesis and causing bacterial cell wall defects Body swelling and lysis. In addition, the lethal effect on bacteria should include triggering the bacteria's autolysin activity, and mutant strains lacking autolysin showed resistance.
3. Beta lactam ring
The Beta lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families. The main families are penicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, so it is also called beta-lactam antibiotics. Almost all of these antibiotics work by inhibiting the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. This has a lethal effect on bacteria, although any given bacterial population will usually contain a subgroup that is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. The development of bacterial resistance is due to the expression of many genes.
1. Beta lactam antibiotics
Beta-lactam antibiotics are a wide range of antibiotics, including penicillin and its derivatives, cephalosporins, monoamide rings, carbapenems and penicillin enzyme inhibitors. β-lactam antibiotics (β-lactams) refer to a large class of antibiotics with a β-lactam ring in the chemical structure.
Basically, all antibiotics including β-lactam nucleus in their molecular structure belong to β-lactams Antibiotics, which are the most widely used types of existing antibiotics, including the most commonly used penicillins and cephalosporins in clinic, as well as newly developed cephamycins, thiomycins, monocyclic β-lactams, etc. Atypical β-lactam antibiotics. Such antibiotics have the advantages of strong bactericidal activity, low toxicity, wide indications and good clinical efficacy.
2. Beta lactam antibiotics list
A. Penicillins Penicillin is also known as penicillin G. Penicillin is a kind of antibiotic. It refers to a class of antibiotics containing penicillin in the molecule, which can destroy the cell wall of bacteria and play a bactericidal role during the reproduction period of bacterial cells. It is an antibiotic extracted from penicillium. Penicillin belongs to β-lactam antibiotics (β-lactams).
B. Cephalosporins Cephalosporin antibiotics are widely used antibiotics. Cephalosporins are semi-synthetic antibiotics containing cephalosporins, which belong to β-lactam antibiotics and are derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) in β-lactam antibiotics, so they have similar Sterilization mechanism.
C. Monoamide ring Monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics (monobactams) represent drugs including aztreonam and carumonan, which are narrow-spectrum antibiotics against aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Amidase stability and effect on negative bacilli including P. aeruginosa are similar to ceftazidime. Resistance to positive bacteria and anaerobic bacteria.
D. Carbapenems Carbapenem antibiotics are the most atypical β-lactam antibiotics with the broadest antibacterial spectrum and strongest antibacterial activity. Because of their stability to β-lactamase and low toxicity, they have become the most important treatment for severe bacterial infection One of antibacterial drugs. Its structure is similar to the penicillin ring of penicillins.
E. Penicillinase inhibitors And some other antibiotics, basically all antibiotics that include β-lactam core in their molecular structure belong to β-lactam antibiotics.
3. Beta lactam drugs
Beta-lactam drugs include the following:
A. Penicillins: such as penicillin G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin. Before using penicillin antibacterial drugs, you must ask in detail whether you have a history of penicillin allergies, other drug allergies, and allergic diseases. Skin test, the concentration of skin test solution is generally 500U / ml. Once anaphylactic shock occurs, 0.1% epinephrine 0.5-1ml should be injected subcutaneously immediately, and there is no improvement in clinical performance. Repeat it 3-5 minutes later, and cooperate with other symptomatic rescue measures.
B. Cephalosporins: According to the antibacterial spectrum, antibacterial activity, stability to β-lactamase and renal toxicity, it is divided into four generations. The first generation: cefalexin, cefazolin, cefradine, cefadroxil; the second generation: cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefprozil, cefotiam, etc. According to the drug package, decide whether to conduct a drug allergy test. Those who are allergic to cephalosporins and those with penicillin anaphylactic shock or immediate reaction history are prohibited from this class of drugs.
C. New β-lactams.
4. Beta lactamase
Beta-lactamase is a class of enzymes secreted by resistant bacteria against lactam antibiotics. It can be combined with beta-lactam ring to cleave beta-lactam ring and be destroyed, and lose antibacterial activity. It is the main reason for the resistance of these bacteria.
5. Beta lactamase inhibitor
β-Lactamase inhibitors (β-Lactamase inhibitors) are a new class of β-lactam drugs. Plasmid delivery produces β-lactamase, which causes the hydrolysis of some drugs β-lactam ring and inactivation. It is the main way for pathogens to resist some common β-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins).
The harm of Betalactam
Side effects of β-lactam antibiotics include: diarrhea, dizziness, rashes, urticaria, overlapping infections (including Candida) (Rossi, 2004). Occasionally β-lactam antibiotics can cause fever, vomiting, erythema, skin Inflammation, angioedema and pseudomembranous enteritis. Beta-lactam antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors are often painful and inflamed when injected at the same time.
About 10% of patients are allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics. Allergic reactions occur in about 0.01% of patients (Rossi, 2004). About 5-10% of patients are cross-sensitive to penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, and carbapenem antibiotics.
Features of Betalactam Test
1. 7min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Neither professionals nor equipment required
4. Easy to operate and read
Detection Method of Betalactam Test
Betalactam Test is a colloidal gold immunochromatography assay that detects Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Nafcillin, Cefquinome, Cefacetrile, Cefalonium, Cefazolin, Cefoperazone, Cephapirin, Ceftiofurin egg and products made of eggs, and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
1. Add 200ul test solution into a well, then pipet up and down for 10 times to completely mix the sample with the reagent in the well.
2. Then incubate for 3min.
3. Insert the test strip into the micro-well with the sample pad fully dipped.
4. After 5 minutes, read the results.
The β-lactam antibiotics represented by penicillin and cephalosporin have the characteristics of high efficiency, high safety and broad-spectrum antibacterial. They occupy an extremely important clinical position in clinical practice. Today, it is still the antibiotic of choice for G + cocci infections.
Beta-lactam antibiotics can be used as veterinary drugs in poultry farms, which may result in residual beta-lactam in poultry or eggs produced by poultry. Beta lactam test for egg is essential, and BALLYA has specifically studied this situation and has developed a rapid test kit for beta-lactam antibiotics. Yes, people in need can quickly and easily detect beta-lactam antibiotics in eggs. The test results comply with EU standards. Not only the operation is simple, but also the time is short and the precision is high. BALLYA will continue to conduct more research in this area.
How to order Betalactam Test?
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