What is Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test?
Tri Sensor Kit, rapid to detect betalactam, tetracycline and streptomycin residues in milk and dairy product by using colloidal gold immune-chromatography technology. As soon as 7-10 minutes to results.
Beta-lactam antibiotics include penicillin and its derivatives, cephalosporins, monoamide rings, carbapenems and penicillene enzyme inhibitors etc. β-lactam antibiotics (β-lactams) refer to a large class of antibiotics with β-lactam ring in the chemical structure. Basically all antibiotics that include β-lactam core in their molecular structure belong to β-lactams Antibiotics.
They are widely used antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins that are most commonly used clinically, as well as newly developed cephalosporins, thiomycins, monocyclic β-lactams, etc. Such antibiotics have the advantages of strong bactericidal activity, low toxicity, wide indications and good clinical efficacy.
The chemical structure of this class of medicines, especially the change of the side chain, has formed many antibiotics with different antibacterial spectrum and antibacterial effects and various clinical pharmacological properties.
2. Mechanism of action
The mechanism of action of various β-lactam antibiotics is similar. They can inhibit cell wall mucopeptide synthase, namely penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), thereby hindering the synthesis of cell wall mucopeptides, causing bacterial cell wall defects and bacteria expansion.
In addition, the lethal effect on bacteria should also include triggering the autolysin activity of the bacteria, and mutant strains lacking autolysin show resistance. Animals have no cell wall and are not affected by β-lactam drugs. Therefore, this drug has a selective bactericidal effect on bacteria and has low toxicity to the host.
What is tetracycline?
Tetracycline’s mechanism of action is that the drug can specifically bind to the A position of the 30S subunit of the ribosome to prevent the connection of aminoacyl-tRNA at this position, thereby inhibiting the growth of peptide chains and affecting the protein synthesis of bacteria or other pathogenic microorganisms.
It is generally not used for bacterial infections, but mainly used for rickettsial disease, brucellosis, lymphogranuloma, mycoplasma pneumonia, spirochetes, chlamydia, etc. Oral absorption is not complete. Tetracycline can be secreted into breast milk and enter the fetus through the placenta, causing adverse reactions in offspring. Intravenous drip administration is now rarely used.
2. Pharmacological effects
Tetracycline hydrochloride has a broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic microorganism effect, is a fast antibacterial agent, and has a bactericidal effect on certain bacteria at high concentrations.
The mechanism of action is that the drug can specifically bind to the A position of the 30S subunit of the ribosome to prevent the connection of aminoacyl-tRNA at this position, thereby inhibiting the growth of peptide chains and affecting the protein synthesis of bacteria or other pathogenic microorganisms.
Secondly, tetracyclines can cause changes in the permeability of bacterial cell membranes, so the leakage of nucleotides and other important components in the cells, thereby inhibiting DNA replication.
Tetracycline has strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, meningococcus, Escherichia coli, Aerobacter, Shigella, Yersinia, Listeria monocytogenes, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Actinomycetes, etc.
What is streptomycin?
Streptomycin is a broad-spectrum alkaline antibiotic extracted from the culture broth of Streptomyces griseus. The molecular formula is C21H39N7O12, the molecular structure is very complex, consisting of streptoguanidine, streptose and N-methyl-L-glucose.
It often exists in the form of sulfate, white or slightly yellow crystals, odorless and bitter, hygroscopic, easily soluble in water, insoluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and ether, and relatively stable.
Because streptomycin contains an aldehyde group in its molecule, which is unstable and becomes dihydrostreptomycin after hydrogenation. The commonly used streptomycin is mainly streptomycin A and streptomycin B. Streptomycin has a strong antibacterial effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is an important anti-TB drug. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is generally 0.5μg/ml.
Agricultural streptomycin is an antibiotic secreted by Streptomyces griseus. It has a systemic therapeutic effect. It can penetrate into the plant body and be transmitted to other parts with a good effect on plant bacterial diseases. It can effectively control plant bacterial diseases, such as apple, pear fire blight, tobacco wildfire, blue mold, soft rot of cabbage, tomato bacterial spot rot, late blight, potato seed potato rot, black shank, Cucumber angular leaf spot, downy mildew, kidney bean downy mildew, bacterial blight, celery bacterial blight, sesame bacterial leaf spot. It is mainly used to control rice bacterial leaf blight, bacterial leaf spot, citrus canker, and cucumber bacterial angular leaf spot. It can be used for spraying, root irrigation and seed soaking.
The discovery of streptomycin has made a great contribution to the treatment of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis was an incurable disease at the beginning of the 20th century, and thousands of people died for it every year. In 1888, Waxman in the United States occasionally discovered that tuberculosis bacteria disappeared after entering the soil.
After 3 years of research, it was discovered that there are certain non-toxic microorganisms in the soil that can kill tuberculosis bacteria. In 1939, Waxman took out various molds and microorganisms from the soil in the, separated them one by one in many experiments, and finally extracted streptomycin from the culture broth of streptomyces in 1943, which was effective in treating tuberculosis.
Later, it was discovered that streptomycin was also effective for meningitis. In 1952 Waxman won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for this. China has started breeding and production of streptomycin strains in 1958.
2. Mechanism of action
Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. By acting on ribosomes in bacteria, it inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and destroys the integrity of bacterial cell membranes.
The drug can first pass through the porins of the outer cell membrane through passive diffusion, and then enter the cell through this transport system, and irreversibly bind to the isolated ribosome 30s subunit, leading to the destruction of the A site, and then: preventing the correct positioning of tRNA at position A and interfering with the assembly of the functional ribosome and inhibiting the formation of 70s initiation complex; inducing the mismatch of tRNA and mRNA code triplet, causing the 30s subunit of the intact ribosome to misread the genetic code, resulting in Abnormal and non-functional protein synthesis; hindering the termination factor from binding to the A site, so that the synthesized peptide chain cannot be released, and prevent the dissociation of intact ribosomes in 70s; hindering the depolymerization and assembly process of polyribosomes, resulting in bacterial in vivo Ribosome depletion.
The hazards of Betalactam, Tetracycline and Streptomycin
After China joined the WTO, poultry products returned from abroad tell us that the technical barriers for exporting poultry products to enter the international market are getting thicker.
To comply with OIE's food hygiene and safety requirements, we must change our traditional livestock production methods, disallow banned drugs and antibiotics exceeding the standard. At present, the hazards of drug residues directly affect food hygiene and safety, and if not controlled, it will bring hidden dangers to human health.
Streptomycin can cause ear nerve disorders and decreased renal function. Feeding broilers with streptomycin can cause immeasurable harm to children from the residual streptomycin in the meat. The use of chloramphenicol can cause regenerative anemia.
The key is that chloramphenicol will cover up symptoms so cause an increased mortality. In addition, in recent years, the scraps of broiler products have been used to raise mink, and the residual drugs in the chicken intestines have killed the mink year by year. Inspection and testing of chicken intestines found that the amount of chloramphenicol exceeded three times the stipulated amount and the content of maduramycin exceeded five times the amount allowed. These chickens died of poisoning due to overfeeding of drug residues.
Antibiotics remain in the environment, redistributed in soil, water and sediments, which will adversely affect the ecological environment such as plants, soil microbial systems, and surface water bodies. And through the food chain of the biological world, they will eventually cause damage to the human body and the natural environment.
Developed countries in Europe and America have successively introduced regulations to restrict the addition of antibiotics to animal feed. The European Union began to suspend the addition of several major antibiotics to animal feeds in the 1970s. So far, the European Union has basically realized that no antibiotics are added to animal feeds. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plans to ban the use of antibiotics in livestock feed in three years from 2014.
Features of Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test
1. 8min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Single test for every target sample
4. Neither professionals nor equipment required
5. Eyes interpretation or quantitative measurement, suitable for lab and field use
6. Room temperature storage
7. Non-toxic and harmless
Detection Method of Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test
Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test is a colloidal gold immunochromatography assay that detects Beta-lactams, Tetracycline and Streptomycin in raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection Limit of Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
Importance of Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test
Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans keep their health.
Components of Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test
1. Micro-Well Reagent: 8 tests/tube, 12 tubes/box
2. Test Strip: 8pcs/tube, 96pcs/box
3. Manual Instruction: 1pc
Materials for Betalactam Tetracycline Streptomycin Combo Test