The main component of neomycin is neomycin B, which contains a trace amount of neomycin C. Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and is a bactericidal agent in the stationary phase.
Its mechanism of action is through active transport through the cell membrane, irreversibly binding with one or several proteins of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, interfering with the formation of the initial complex between mRNA and 30S subunit, leading to the synthesis of abnormal proteins; abnormal protein binding into the bacterial cell membrane which causes the cell membrane to permeate and the bacteria die.
Neomycin is effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and some gram-positive bacteria.
2. Pharmacological effects
Among gram-negative bacteria, it has strong antibacterial activity against Enterobacter such as Escherichia coli and Serratia, Proteus, Morganella, etc.; among gram-positive bacteria, it has strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Diphtheria, and Bacillus anthracis.
It has strong antibacterial activity and poor antibacterial activity against streptococcus, pneumococcus and enterococcus. Neomycin is not effective against anaerobic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, viruses, and rickettsiae. Blood ammonia mainly comes from the intestinal tract. Most of the urea in the blood circulation diffuses into the intestinal lumen.
It is decomposed by urease secreted by intestinal bacteria (mainly Escherichia coli) to become NH3 and carbon dioxide. Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which can inhibit the growth of bacteria in the intestines, reduce the formation of ammonia and lower blood ammonia.
What is Kanamycin?
Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside drug. Its antibacterial action mechanism is the same as that of streptomycin.
By acting on ribosomes in bacteria, it inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and destroys the integrity of bacterial cell membranes.
Kanamycin has strong antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacilli such as Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Aerobacillus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, etc. Kanamycin is not effective against Gram-positive bacteria (except Staphylococcus aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anaerobic bacteria, atypical mycobacteria, rickettsiae, fungi, etc.
A. It is used to treat system infections caused by sensitive bacteria, such as pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections, etc.
B. It is used to treat intestinal infections caused by sensitive bacteria and to prepare for intestinal surgery.
C. It is used to prevent hepatic encephalopathy in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding in liver cirrhosis (it has the effect of reducing the production of ammonia by intestinal bacteria).
D. Local administration is used to treat conjunctivitis, keratitis, dacryocystitis, blepharitis, and meibomian inflammation caused by sensitive bacteria.
What is Spectinomycin?
Spectinomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. By acting on the 30s ribosomal subunit, it dissociates the attached formylmethionyl tRNA from the 70s starting complex and inhibits the protein synthesis of the bacterial cell wall.
It has a strong effect on Neisseria gonorrhoeae and has moderate antibacterial activity against many Gram-negative bacilli. Blood concentration <7.5-20μg/ml can inhibit most strains. It is not absorbed by oral administration, but absorbed completely by intramuscular injection.
Adverse reactions are rare, occasionally decreased hemoglobin, decreased endogenous creatinine clearance, increased alkaline phosphatase, transaminase and urea nitrogen can be seen.
Spectinomycin is also known as actinospectacin. Unlike streptomycin, it does not cause misreading of mRNA, but it can bind to bacterial 30S ribosomes and hinder protein biosynthesis. In spectinomycin-resistant strains, mutations can be seen in the protein called "S5" in the 30S ribosome.
2. Pharmacological effects
Spectinomycin is an amino cyclic alcohol compound produced by Streptomyces spectabilis, which is a combination of neutral sugar and amino cyclic alcohol by glycoside bond.
Some structures of spectinomycin are similar to streptomycin. By acting on the 30s ribosomal subunit, it dissociates the attached formylmethionyl tRNA from the 70s starting complex and inhibits the protein synthesis in the bacterial cell wall.
What is Gentamicin?
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, mainly used to treat bacterial infections, especially those caused by gram-negative bacteria. Gentamicin can bind to the 30s subunit of the bacterial ribosome and block bacterial protein synthesis. Gentamicin is one of the few thermostable antibiotics, so it is widely used in media preparation.
For Escherichia coli, Aerobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, certain indole Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, certain Neisseria, certain Serratia leucocephalus, Shigella and other gram-negative bacteria Antibacterial effect.
Among Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus is sensitive to this product; Streptococcus is resistant to this product. Anaerobic bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia, viruses and fungi are also resistant to this product. In recent years, due to the wide application of this product, drug-resistant strains have gradually increased.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Serratia, and indole-positive Proteus have a high resistance rate to this product.
It has a strong effect on G-bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, Aerobacillus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc., suitable for neonatal sepsis, sepsis, central nervous system infection (including meningitis), urinary tract and reproductive system infection, respiratory tract infection, gastrointestinal infection (including peritonitis), biliary tract infection, skin, bone, Otitis media, sinusitis, soft tissue infections (including burns) and listeriosis.
The detriment of Neomycin, Kanamycin, Spectinomycin and Gentamicin
Since the discovery of penicillin in 1928, humans have begun to use antibiotics extensively in poultry breeding, animal husbandry, aquaculture and food processing. Most of the antibiotic drugs taken by humans and animals cannot be fully absorbed, so enter the sewage with excrement or directly is discharged into the water environment.
The waste water produced during the preparation process of antibiotics contains a variety of biologically toxic substances that are difficult to degrade with high concentrations of active antibiotics, which have a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of microorganisms in the biochemical treatment of wastewater.
Although most drugs can be decomposed or removed in sewage treatment plants, antibiotic drugs cannot be completely removed even in developed countries with well-developed sewage treatment facilities. Because most of these substances are not controlled as water quality testing indicators, there are few special treatment links for antibiotics in the current sewage treatment process, which also causes high residues of antibiotics in the wastewater.
Medical antibiotics include antibiotics used in hospitals and homes. After antibiotics are absorbed by the body, a small part of them undergo metabolic reactions to produce inactive products, and a large part of them are excreted in the original form through feces and urine.
Antibiotics are frequently used in hospitals. Various wastewater and excrement containing antibiotics are the main source of antibiotics emitted. Some antibiotics used in households enter the environmental water body through human excretion, and the other part is discarded as solid waste.
Most of the existing treatment facilities have no obvious removal effect on hospital sewage antibiotics that they cannot be removed by conventional biochemical treatment processes, and are rarely adsorbed by activated sludge.
Antibiotic residues are toxic to some algae and fish. The long-term existence of low-concentration antibiotics may affect the microbial community in the water body, and affect advanced organisms through the transmission of the food chain, destroying the ecosystem.
Features of Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test
1. 8min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Single test for every target sample
4. Neither professionals nor equipment required
5. Eyes interpretation or quantitative measurement, suitable for lab and field use
6. Room temperature storage
7. Non-toxic and harmless
Detection Method of Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test
Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test is a colloidal gold immune-chromatography assay that detects Neomycin, Kanamycin, Spectinomycin and Gentamicin in raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection Limit of Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
Importance of Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test
Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans keep their health.
Components of Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test
1. Micro-Well Reagent: 8 tests/tube, 12 tubes/box
2. Test Strip: 8pcs/tube, 96pcs/box
3. Manual Instruction: 1pc
Materials for Neomycin Kanamycin Spectinomycin Gentamicin Combo Test