Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute, febrile, septic and highly contact infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus in birds. It is characterized by high fever, dyspnea, chin, neurological disorders, and mucosal and serous membrane bleeding. It has a high morbidity and mortality rate, and is a major infectious disease that endangers the poultry industry.
Newcastle disease transmission
Sick chickens are the main source of infection of the disease. 24 hours before the clinical symptoms of chickens become infected, the virus is excreted in their mouth, nasal secretions and feces. The virus is present in all tissues, organs, fluids, secretions and excretion of sick chickens. Poisoned chickens during the epidemic period are also the source of the disease. Birds are also important communicators. The virus can enter the body through the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, and through the eye conjunctiva, injured skin, and cloaca mucosa.
Newcastle disease diagnosis
1. Loss of spirit, reduced feeding, difficulty breathing, and increased drinking. There is often a "grumbling" sound, and yellowish green thin stools; 2. After the onset, some chickens have neurological symptoms such as neck turning, star watching, unstable standing or lying on the floor, which are more common in diseased chicks and reared chickens; 3. Laying hens reduce or stop producing eggs, soft-shelled eggs, faded eggs, sand shell eggs, malformed eggs increase, follicle deformation, follicular blood vessels congestion, bleeding. 4. Glandular gastric nipple bleeding, intestinal manifestations of jujube-like purple-red bleeding, necrosis. Laryngeal and tracheal mucosa hyperemia, bleeding, mucus; 5. Hemagglutination inhibitory antibody (HI) is significantly increased or the poles are separated, and the dispersion is increased; 6. Pay attention to the concurrent and secondary infections of Newcastle disease, bird flu, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, and renal branching. When diagnosing and preventing chicken Newcastle disease, pay special attention to the differential diagnosis and Joint prevention and treatment, especially joint immunization work; 7. Attention should be paid to the role of susceptible individuals in atypical Newcastle disease-affected chicken flocks and high-free chicken flocks due to missed immunity in the storage and dissemination of Newcastle disease virus. Attention should be paid to the prevention and avoidance of atypical Newcastle disease.
What is Newcastle virus?
Newcastle disease virus is an ssRNA virus with an envelope.
Newcastle disease virus structure
Virus particles are polymorphic, including round, oval, and long rods. Mature virus particles are 100-400 nm in diameter. The envelope is a bilayer structure membrane, which is derived from the combination of lipids and viral glycoproteins in the outer membrane of the host cell. The surface of the envelope has spikes with a length of 12 to 15 nm, and has hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and hemolysin. The center of the virus is the ssRNA molecule and the protein capsid attached to it, which are wound into a spiral symmetrical core capsid, about 18 nm in diameter. Mature viruses are released outside the cell by budding.
The Newcastle disease in poultry
Newcastle disease chicken
Newcastle disease in chicken is an acute septicemic infectious disease caused by the virus. Commonly known as "chicken fever", the so-called Asian chicken fever. The disease can occur all year round, especially in cold and climate-changing seasons. Chickens of all ages can be infected, and 20 to 60-day-old chickens are the most susceptible and have a high mortality rate. The main features are dyspnea, neurological disorders, bleeding and necrosis of the mucosa and serosa.
Newcastle disease chickens symptoms
The disease is mainly symptomatic of respiratory and digestive tracts, manifested by dyspnea, cough and asthma, sometimes with head and neck straightness, open mouth breathing, decreased appetite or death, watery thin stools, and the effect of drug treatment is not obvious, the diseased chicken gradually Dehydration and weight loss, chronic sporadic death. The autopsy lesions are not typical. Among them, the most diagnostic significance is the bleeding lesions of the duodenal mucosa, lymph nodes before and after the yolk stalk, cecum tonsil, and ileal mucosa, as well as cerebral hemorrhage.
Newcastle disease in ducks
At the beginning of the illness, the duck is deprived of energy, decreased appetite, increased drinking water, narrowed neck and closed eyes, rapid weight loss, weak legs, crouching or paralysis, began to discharge white thin stool, red in the middle, green or black in the later stage; some sick ducks shook their heads, Difficulty breathing, accumulation of mucus in the mouth; shaking, twirling, angulation of the angular arch and so on. Breeding ducks infected with NDV showed decreased egg production, with soft-shelled eggs, shell-free eggs, and small eggs. The disease can be transmitted vertically through breeding eggs, resulting in an increase in the number of dead embryos and an increase in the number of weak chicks hatched, and some neurological symptoms such as turning heads, turning circles, and leaning back.
How to treat Newcastle disease?
Newcastle disease prevention
1. Do a good job of environmental sanitation and feeding management. The sheds should be cleaned every day, regularly disinfected, disinfected with different disinfectants, maintained in good ventilation, protected from humidity, sweltering, and crowded, ensuring the nutritional needs of chickens, and improving physical fitness Enhance disease resistance. 2. Prevent any contact with chickens with Newcastle disease virus. Paramyxovirus enters the chicken's respiratory tract and digestive tract through the air, so never introduce chickens from infected areas. 3. The vaccine for chicken Newcastle disease prevention is best to use vaccines. There are two types of live vaccines and inactivated vaccines in veterinary stations.
Newcastle disease vaccine
There are two main types of vaccines, one is inactivated vaccine and the other is attenuated vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are: Newcastle disease oil emulsion inactivated vaccine; Newcastle disease-avian influenza (H9) triple inactivated vaccine; Newcastle disease-infectious bronchitis-avian influenza (H9) triple inactivated vaccine; Newcastle disease-infectious Bronchitis-egg reduction syndrome triple inactivated vaccine; Newcastle disease-infectious bursal-egg reduction syndrome oil emulsion vaccine; Newcastle disease-infectious bursal-infectious rhinitis oil emulsion vaccine; Newcastle disease -Infectious bronchitis; Newcastle disease-renal-type infectious bronchitis; Newcastle disease, avian influenza, branch, quadruple serum antibody triple bird leisure and other vaccines. Attenuated vaccines mainly include traditional attenuated vaccines such as line I (Mukteswar) and line IV (1asata), while lines II (line B) and line III (line F) are not commonly used.
Which animals can be detected by the BALLYA Newcastle test?
The BALLYA Newcastle test can be applied to all kinds of poultry. The characteristics of this product are short detection time, simple operation and low price. BALLYA Newcastle test has two detection targets for Newcastle detection: Newcastle antigen and Newcastle antibody. You can choose according to your needs.
Significance of testing Newcastle
In order to ensure the safety of consumers, reduce the economic loss of the owner of the breeding plant, prevent the sick poultry from entering the market, and treat the sick poultry in time, the Newcastle Test can play a key role. Ensure the safety of farm owners and consumers, reduce unnecessary losses.
1. Collect the sample with a cotton swab directly from the cloacal and trachea. Baby bird sample can be collect from the fresh stool. 2. Insert the swab to the buffer solution test tube immediately. Spin the swab until the reagent mix with the sample (not less than 10 times). Squeeze the swab on the inner tube wall to squeeze out the liquid. 3. Stand for 1-2mins to dissolve the big particle. 4. Put the test card on the flat table, absorb the supernatant and add 5 drops into the sample well carefully. 5. Stand for 15-20mins at room temperature and read the result. The result after 20 minutes is invalid.
Limitations of BALLYA Newcastle Test?
BALLYA Newcastle Test is a qualitative test kit. It’s only for screening purpose. If have positive cases or suspected case, maybe use other detection method to make a further detection, such as, ELISA, PCR, qPCR, etc.
Newcastle disease has a high morbidity and mortality rate and is a major infectious disease that endangers the poultry industry. Once the disease occurs, it will cause huge economic losses and threaten people's health and safety. BALLYA Newcastle Test provided by BALLYA can effectively detect whether poultry has Newcastle disease. This kit is not only simple to operate, but also has a short test time and high accuracy. Allow the veterinarian to respond accordingly.