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Ruminants disease test

Echinococcus Granulosus is a zoonotic disease that is extremely hazardous.
Brucellosis of cattle and sheep is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella.
People are susceptible to brucellosis, and prevention should be strengthened.
Generally, skin allergy occurs around 20-25 days after brucellosis.
FMD is an infectious disease caused by FMD virus.
FMDV belongs to the genus Aphthous virus of the family Picornavirus.
FMDV is particularly sensitive to acids and alkalis.
Ruminant chlamydia is a member of the genus Chlamydia.
The small ruminant zooepidemic virus belongs to the measles virus genus of Paramyxoviridae.

Ruminants disease test

What is ruminants?

Ruminants definition

Ruminants are a suborder of Artiodactyla. Rumination means that after eating for a period of time, the semi-digested food in the stomach is returned to the mouth to be chewed again. Ruminants are animals that have the ruminant digestion method. Usually some herbivores, because the plant fiber is more difficult to digest. Ruminants are generally in a hurry to eat, especially roughage. Most of them are swallowed into the rumen without being fully chewed. After the rumen is soaked and softened for a period of time, the food returns to the oral cavity after vomiting, chews again, mixes saliva again The process of swallowing into the rumen.

Ruminants digestive system

The most important mechanism of digestion in the digestive system of ruminants-rumen microorganisms.
Rumen microorganisms include: anaerobic bacteria, fungi, archaea and protozoa.
Rumen bacteria mainly include cellulose-decomposing bacteria, pectin-decomposing bacteria, starch-decomposing bacteria, etc., which can decompose complex organic matter into small molecule organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, butyric acid, etc., and can be further degraded.
Rumen microorganisms rely on the digestible sugar and starch provided in the feed as energy and absorb the protein precursors, restricted amino acids, and essential trace elements and vitamins in the feed for growth and reproduction; then the bacteria reuse the fiber in the feed Vegetarian, non-protein nitrogenous compounds produce volatile fatty acids and bacterial cell proteins for use by cattle, while other gases are expelled from the body through belching.

The main functions of rumen microorganisms are:

① Fermented carbohydrate feed.
②Use low-quality protein feed and non-protein nitrogen such as urea to synthesize the high-quality bacterial protein required by the animal body.
③ Can synthesize vitamin B family and vitamin K.
④The rumen microorganisms have the effects of hydrogenation, isomerization and synthesis on fat.

How many stomachs do ruminants have?

Cow, sheep, horses, donkeys, camels, and giraffes are all ruminants. According to data, the common anatomical characteristics of ruminants are all cloven hooves. The rumen's stomach is divided into 4 stomach chambers (camel divided into 3 stomach chambers), which are rumen, reticulum, double-valve stomach and abomasum. In particular, symbiotic bacteria are used to break down cellulose into glucose. The food is then ruminated and slowly chewed to mix thoroughly to further break down the fiber. Then swallow again, passing through the rumen to the double valve stomach, and dehydrating. Then sent to the stomach. Finally, it is sent to the small intestine for absorption.

Ruminants stomach

Rumen

The rumen is the first "dark room" where food enters the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants, and the "main battlefield" for food digestion. It is a closed living fermentation tank, in which many types of microorganisms inhabit, including protozoa, bacteria and fungi. Generally, each milliliter of rumen fluid contains 16-40 billion bacteria, 200,000 ciliates, and a large number of fungi. Don't underestimate these microorganisms, they are the specific performers of the rumen's digestive physiological functions. After the food reaches the rumen, a large number of microorganisms immediately adhere to the surface of the food and secrete digestive enzymes such as cellulase, hemicellulase and β-glycosidase, so the cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin in food are polysaccharides Such substances are soon "cut" into monosaccharides and "transformed" into volatile fatty acids and CO2. The former can provide 60-70% of the energy source for ruminants. And these polysaccharide phytonutrients are indigestible by ruminants, and they must rely on the powerful "force" of microbes. Although the rumen is large, its mucosa does not have digestive glands, nor can it secrete digestive juice. It is estimated to be swollen by a large amount of food. After the food is fully digested by microorganisms in the rumen, about 50% of the crude fiber can be digested in the rumen.

Net stomach

The net stomach is a stomach chamber close to the rumen. Its mucosa is shaped like a honeycomb, so it is also commonly known as the bee stomach. In fact, the net stomach and rumen are not completely separated in space structure, so food particles can freely shuttle back and forth between the two gastric compartments. So, what is the physiological function of Net stomach? In fact, the food that ruminants eat in the wild often contains some foreign objects such as iron nails. At this time, the net stomach is like a sieve. These foreign objects are stored in it, which not only plays a role in filtering, but also prevents foreign matter from Injuries to other intestinal surfaces. In addition, the sensors on the gastric mucosa can receive mechanical stimulation signals from grass or hay, and contract through the muscles on the stomach wall of the rumen to initiate rumination.

Stomach

The valve stomach is connected to the stomach in front of the net, followed by the wrinkled stomach. Because its mucosa is recessed inward to form many leaf flaps of different sizes, it is also called the valve stomach. This stomach's digestion of food is more like a "continuation" of rumen digestion. It is like a water pump. The rough part of the chyme from the rumen is concentrated here. After removing water and electrolytes, it is further refined. Push the thinner chyme into the abomasum. In the valve stomach, 20% of the cellulose in the food can be digested.

Wrinkled stomach

Wrinkled stomach is the stomach chamber followed by the small intestine, and it is also the only stomach with secretory function, which has real digestive function, so it is called the true stomach. Wrinkled stomach can secrete a large amount of gastric juice, including digestive enzymes such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin and rennet, and a large amount of mucus. These secretions mainly chemically digest the primary metabolites of the first three digested foods.

Ruminants disease

The most common ruminant diseases are cow diseases, sheep diseases and goat diseases.

Brocellosis

Brucellosis of cattle and sheep is a chronic infectious disease caused by brucella. It is characterized by inflammation, necrosis, and granuloma formation of the reproductive organs, fetal membranes, and various organs and tissues, causing symptoms such as miscarriage, infertility, testes, and arthritis. Many animals have different degrees of susceptibility to this disease, and natural infections are common in sheep, cattle and pigs.

FMDV

Bovine foot-and-mouth disease is an acute, hot, and contagious infectious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus in cloven-hoofed animals. Its clinical features are blisters on the oral mucosa, breast and hoof.

Chlamydia

The ruminant chlamydia (Chlamydia pecorum, C. pecorum) is a member of the genus Chlamydia. Its host is very wide, and the most commonly infected livestock are cattle, sheep and pigs. Many wild animals are the natural host of the fungus. Diseased animals and carrier animals are the main source of infection. They can excrete pathogens through feces and other secretions, pollute water sources, feed and the environment, and enter the body through the digestive tract of susceptible animals.
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