Lincomycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and has antibacterial effects on most gram-positive bacteria and some anaerobic gram-negative bacteria. It mainly acts on anaerobic bacteria and gram-positive cocci.
It has poor oral absorption, and high concentrations in bile and feces which can easily cause intestinal flora disorders. When liver and kidney function decline, the half-life is prolonged.
2. Pharmacological effects
It can inhibit bacterial protein synthesis, and have antibacterial effect on most gram-positive bacteria and some anaerobic gram-negative bacteria.
The antibacterial effect on gram-positive bacteria is similar to erythromycin. Sensitive bacteria include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, Diphtheria, etc.
Anaerobic bacteria sensitive to this product include Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, Eubacterium, Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, most peptococcus, Perfringens, Tetanus, and some actinomycetes Bacteria etc.
Staphylococcus can slowly develop resistance to this product. Staphylococcus resistant to erythromycin often shows cross-resistance to this product.
What are macrolides?
Macrolides are a class of antibiotics with Macrocyclic lactone. Macrolide potential groups and sugar derivatives are connected by glycoside bonds to form macromolecular antibiotics.
It is a class of weakly alkaline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces. General macrolide antibiotics are alkaline lipophilic compounds. Macrolide antibiotics have strong inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycoplasma.
A. The first generation of macrolide antibiotics. Specifically, there are erythromycins, which is commonly used for respiratory problems, as well as josamycin and acetylspiramycin. Compared with erythromycin, these macrolide antibiotics have an improved effect on drug-resistant bacteria, but their liver toxicity is still obvious and can easily cause poisoning.
B. The second generation of macrolide antibiotics. This generation of macrolide antibiotics has now become important drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, and it has fewer adverse reactions. Specifically, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, etc., have the same effect as erythromycin, but have enhanced the antibacterial activity, expanded antibacterial spectrum, easily absorbed by oral administration and stable to acid.
C. The third generation of macrolide antibiotics. This generation of macrolide antibiotics introduces a ketone group on the 3rd carbon of erythromycin to obtain 14-membered ring macrolide derivatives, such as the common Taili Mycin. It is mainly used to treat infections caused by erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. This generation of macrolide antibiotics is less resistant.
What is Quinolone?
Quinolones drugs refer to synthetic antibacterial drugs containing 4-quinolones nucleus. They are quiescent fungicides with broad antibacterial spectrum, strong antibacterial power, high tissue concentration, good oral absorption, and no crossover with other commonly used antibacterial drugs, longer antibacterial effects, and fewer adverse reactions.
It can be divided into four generations according to the sequence: the first generation is nalidixic acid synthesized in 1962, which has been eliminated due to poor absorption, high toxicity, and poor antibacterial effect; the second generation is piperidine synthesized in 1973 Pipemidic acid, etc., mainly used for urinary tract and digestive tract infections caused by gram-negative bacteria; the third generation is fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, that have been introduced since the 1980s, such as Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Fleroxacin, Sparfloxacin, etc.
Some literatures call the fluoroquinolones produced from the late 1990s to the present as the fourth generation, such as Moxifloxacin and Gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, etc. The third and fourth generations are currently important drugs for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases.
2. Pharmacological effects
Quinolones are bactericides, which have obvious effects on bacteria in the stationary phase and the growth and reproduction phase.
Even if the blood drug concentration has been reduced to an undetectable level, it still has a significant inhibitory effect on some bacteria within 2 to 6 hours, indicating a significant post-antibacterial effect.
What is Erythromycin?
Erythromycin is produced by streptomycin and is a macrolide antibiotic. Its free base is for oral use, and its lactobionate is for injection. In addition, there are still ethyl succinate, dodecyl sulfate of propionate for medicinal use.
2. Mechanism of action
Erythromycin can penetrate the bacterial cell membrane and reversibly bind to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome near the donor site (P site), blocking the transfer of t-RNA from binding to the P site, and at the same time blocking peptides chain from the acceptor site (A site) to the P site, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.
The detriment of Lincomycin, Macrolides, Quinolone and Erythromycin
Some antibiotics used in livestock, poultry and aquaculture disease prevention and feed additives will be absorbed or transformed in the organism and eliminated from the body in the form of metabolites. At the same time, a large part (about 85%) will be excluded from the body in the form of prototype drugs and directly enter the environment.
The concentration of antibiotics in environmental waters is generally trace amounts (ng/L). Current related research shows that antibiotic residues in surface water and drinking water in countries around the world are relatively common. For example, 21 antibiotic residues were detected in 139 rivers in 30 states in the United States, and sulfonamides were detected in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta in China.
The use of antibiotics will cause pathogenic microorganisms to develop drug resistance, making the effective dose of antibiotics to kill bacteria continue to increase.
The resistance gene can be passed from generation to generation, and it can be passed between different bacteria. Therefore, although some drug-resistant bacteria are not pathogenic, they can transmit drug-resistant genes to pathogenic bacteria. The increase and spread of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria pose potential risks to human health.
At the same time, the coexistence of multiple antibiotics in the environment creates favorable conditions for the growth of drug-resistant, especially cross-resistant strains.
Features of Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test
1. 8min reading results
2. Detection limits respond to EU and US FDA norms
3. Single test for every target sample
4. Neither professionals nor equipment required
5. Eyes interpretation or quantitative measurement, suitable for lab and field use
6. Room temperature storage
7. Non-toxic and harmless
Detection Method of Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test
Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test is a colloidal gold immune-chromatography assay that detects Lincomycin, Macrolides, Quinolone and Erythromycin in raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk and meets EU MRL. This kit can be applied for on-site rapid testing by various departments.
Samples for Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test
Samples include: raw milk, milk powder, pasteurized milk.
Detection Limit of Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test
The LOD may change according to requirement or specimen's difference, please refer to kit instruction for further details.
Importance of Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test
Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test can help manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and the public monitor product quality and help humans keep their health.
Components of Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test
1. Micro-Well Reagent: 8 tests/tube, 12 tubes/box
2. Test Strip: 8pcs/tube, 96pcs/box
3. Manual Instruction: 1pc
Materials for Lincomycin Macrolides Quinolone Erythromycin Combo Test