BALLYA BLOG - Articles of Food Safety upstream & downstream supply chain
ballya_logo
enrofloxacin

What is enrofloxacin used to treat?

Posed on  November 24, 2020, edited by Jason, category  
enrofloxacin
enrofloxacin

Quick Navigation

What is enrofloxacin?

1. Definition

Enrofloxacin is also known as ethyl ciprofloxacin. It is a yellowish or light yellow crystalline powder with bitter taste, and insoluble in water. This product is designated as a medicine made specially for animals by the state.

2. Physical and chemical properties

Enrofloxacin is a chemically synthesized bacteriostatic agent of fluoroquinolones and is easily soluble in organic solvents such as sodium hydroxide solution, methanol, and methyl cyanide.

3. Pharmacokinetics

The absorption of oral and intramuscular injection is rapid and complete, and the blood drug level reaches its peak within 0.5-2 hours. Except for the central nervous system, almost all tissues have higher drug concentrations than plasma, which is beneficial to the treatment of systemic infections and deep tissue infections. This product is eliminated by renal and non-renal means, and about 15%-50% of the original drug is excreted through urine. The metabolism in animals is mainly to remove the ethyl group and become ciprofloxacin.

Enrofloxacin is a third-generation fluoroquinolone for veterinary use. It has a broad-spectrum bactericidal effect and is effective against bacteria in the stationary and growing phases. Its bactericidal activity depends on the concentration. Sensitive bacteria will die within 20-30min after contacting this product.

This product has a good antibacterial effect on a variety of Gram-negative bacilli and cocci, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, Air Spp., Haemophilus, Yersinia, Serratia, Vibrio, Proteus, etc. It is also effective against Brucella, Pasteurella, Erysipelas, Bordetella, Staphylococcus (including penicillin-producing and methicillin resistant strains), Mycoplasma and Chlamydia. However, the effect on most streptococci varies, and the effect on most anaerobic bacteria is weak.

This product is quickly absorbed after oral administration or intramuscular injection to livestock and poultry, is widely distributed in the body, and has a longer elimination half-life. The dog obtains a 50% peak blood concentration within 15 minutes after oral administration, and a peak within 1 hour.

Food in the stomach can delay the absorption rate, but does not affect the absorption. The oral bioavailability of chickens, rabbits, dogs and calves were 84%, 61%, 100% and 100%, respectively. However, oral administration of adult ruminants (cattle, sheep, camel) is less than 10%. The bioavailability of intramuscular injection in most animals is above 85%. The metabolism of this product in the body is complicated, but they can be metabolized to ciprofloxacin in varying degrees.

4. Pharmacological effects

This product is a broad-spectrum bactericide with specific effects on mycoplasma. It has bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella hemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, etc.

Enrofloxacin can be used as an animal medicine. It has a long half-life in the animal body and has good tissue distribution. It is a broad-acting bacteriostatic agent. It has antibacterial effect on Gram-positive bacteria, negative bacteria and mycoplasma. It was once used for the control of Vibrio and E. coli disease in farmed fish.

This product is a synthetic third-generation quinolone antibacterial drug, also known as ethyl ciprofloxacin. It was approved by the FDA on October 4, 1996. It is a quinolone antibacterial drug special for livestock and aquatic products. It can bind to bacterial DNA gyrase subunit A, thereby inhibiting the enzyme's cutting and joining functions, preventing bacterial DNA replication, and exhibiting antibacterial effects.

It has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and strong permeability. This product has a strong killing effect on gram-negative bacteria and good antibacterial effect on gram-positive bacteria. It has good oral absorption and high blood concentration. It is stable and can be widely distributed in tissues. Its metabolite is ciprofloxacin, which still has a strong antibacterial effect. It has strong antibacterial activity against almost all pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals. It is effective against severe infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens, and has no cross-resistance to other antibiotics.

What is enrofloxacin used to treat?

1. Indications of Enrofloxacin

Enrofloxacin can be used to treat skin infections, urinary tract infections, respiratory infections and wound infections. But it is not effective against infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, viruses, parasites or molds. It is very effective against yellow scour of pigs, white scour of pigs, edema of pigs, salmonellosis (also called paratyphoid fever), atrophic rhinitis of pigs, mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine asthma), metritis, mastitis, agalactia Swine diseases such as sow agalactia syndrome) and swine streptococcus.

2. Purpose

Enrofloxacin is widely used in livestock and poultry to prevent and treat the following diseases.

  • Colibacillosis of cattle and calves, Pasteurella hemolyticus, respiratory infections caused by Mycoplasma bovis, Salmonella calves infection, mastitis, etc.
  • Pig streptococcus, hemolytic E. coli enterotoxemia (edema disease), salmonellosis, mycoplasma pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, mastitis-metritis-agalactia syndrome and piglet white and yellow diarrhea.
  • Respiratory, digestive, genitourinary and skin infections caused by bacteria or mycoplasma in dogs and cats. External otitis, pyometra, pyoderma and other local treatments are also effective.
  • Poultry infections caused by Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Haemophilus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and various mycoplasmas.

3. Dosage

A. Porcine respiratory and intestinal diseases

Piglets often have coughs and diarrhea after weaning, most of which are caused by diseases such as parapigs and infectious pleuropneumonia. Enrofloxacin has a strong killing effect on these bacteria. Specific plan: Add 1 kg of 10% enrofloxacin and use it for 7 days for piglets in every ton of feed after weaning. If the pig farm had ring or other viral diseases, it can be combined with Huangqi, Fuzheng Jiedu San or Qingwen Baidu San.

B. Joint swelling or sepsis caused by streptococcus

With enrofloxacin injection, amoxicillin + Antong intramuscular injection once a day for 3 days.

C. For the treatment of swine asthma

Add 1 kg of 10% enrofloxacin and 1 kg of 10% doxycycline hydrochloride to each ton of feed for 7-10 days is effective.

D. Prevent contagious pleuropneumonia and swine pneumonia in fattening pigs

Add 1 kg of 10% enrofloxacin and 1 kg of 10% florfenicol to every ton of feed for 7 days.

E. Prevention and treatment of sow metritis

Add 1 kg of 10% enrofloxacin and 10% spectinomycin -lincomycin per ton of feed; intramuscular injection of enrofloxacin 2.5 mg per kg of body weight.

F. Treatment of pig exudative dermatitis

Use 0.1% potassium permanganate water (warm water) or 3% hydrogen peroxide to clean the scabs and exudates of sick pigs. After cleaning, apply a mixture of waste engine oil and penicillin, once a day for 2-3 times. Inject 10% enrofloxacin injection + ceftiofur for injection intramuscularly, once a day for 2-3 times.

4. Drug Combination

  • In order to avoid the emergence of drug resistance and improve its efficacy, a combination of enrofloxacin and beta lactam antibiotics (such as amoxicillin, penicillin), aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, Amikacin, neomycin, etc.) and tetracyclines (doxycycline, oxytetracycline) has additive or synergistic effects. For example, the combination of enrofloxacin injection and amoxicillin powder injection can improve its efficacy and expand the antibacterial spectrum.
  • The dosage regimen of enrofloxacin + amoxicillin + Fuzheng Jiedu powder has played a very good role in the prevention and treatment of bacterial diseases secondary to porcine viral diseases.
  • Use 2.5% enrofloxacin injection and 10% kanamycin sulfate injection (15 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days, which has a good therapeutic effect on swine asthma.
  • The combination of this product with aminoglycosides, third-generation cephalosporins and broad-spectrum penicillins may have a synergistic antibacterial effect on certain bacteria (especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterobacteriaceae).
  • In vitro test, the combination of this product and clindamycin has enhanced antibacterial effect on anaerobic bacteria (Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides fragilis).

Enrofloxacin side effects

1. Adverse reactions

Under normal circumstances, the recommended dose will not cause side effects. However, in recent years, there have been reports of side effects in some cases both at home and abroad. For example, Russian scholars reported that at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight, once a day, used to treat diarrhea piglets within 2 days of age, and most of the piglets died within a few minutes after the injection. At the same time, a large amount of foam flows from their mouths.

2. Matters needing attention

  • If you use enrofloxacin to treat any kind of swine disease, in the first 2 days and 3 days of its acute attack, intramuscular injection should be used to ensure the effect, and then it should be mixed feeding administration if pig have no appetite.
  • Pigs sensitive to enrofloxacin (especially early-age pigs) are prohibited. Before intramuscular injection of large groups of young pigs, it is advisable to give one to two pigs for pre-test. It is forbidden for pigs with cartilage tissue development disorders, pregnant pigs, pigs with neurological diseases with convulsions, and pigs with drug resistance to quinolones.
  • Enrofloxacin cannot be administered together with chloramphenicol, tetracycline, macrolide antibiotics, theophylline and steroids.
  • Drugs containing divalent and trivalent cations (Ca, Mg, AI, Fe), such as antacids, aluminum sulfate and nutritional supplements, can combine with enrofloxacin to form a chelate, thereby inhibiting the absorption effect of enrofloxacin.
  • It can be fed to fur animals or used as raw material to produce meat and bone meal.
  • Enrofloxacin has poor palatability. The enrofloxacin must be coated, otherwise it will cause waste as pigs will not eat it.
  • Avoid single long-term medication. It is recommended to use alternately with other drugs or combine with other drugs to reduce the development of drug resistance.
  • Large doses are prone to side effects. Pigs that are sensitive to enrofloxacin (especially early-age piglets) are forbidden. Before intramuscular injection into large groups of young pigs, it is advisable to give 1-2 pigs for trial.
  • Enrofloxacin has antagonistic effects with macrolide antibiotics, florfenicol, etc.

Baytril

1. Introduction

Baytril is the latest chemically synthesized agent specially developed by Bayer in Germany for animal use. It is the nemesis of gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasma. It is a specific medicine for the treatment of various bacterial and mycoplasma diseases such as pigs, cattle, dogs and so on. It has a good effect on the reproductive tract diseases of fur animals. Different from the antibacterial effect of traditional drugs, Baytril directly enters the nucleus of bacteria and exerts a rapid and thorough bactericidal effect by blocking DNA synthesis.

2. Function

  • Active ingredients: 50 mg of Enrofloxacin per ml
  • Product features: the newest chemically synthesized antibacterial agent. It has a unique nail fungus mechanism, which directly kills pathogens, and has strong antibacterial power. It can be used in conjunction with any drug. It has a broad spectrum and does not produce drug resistance with no cross-resistance. It reduces mortality to a great extent.
  • Mechanism of action: Different from the antibacterial effect of traditional drugs, Baytril directly enters the nucleus of bacteria and exerts a rapid and thorough bactericidal effect by blocking DNA synthesis.
  • Indications: Porcine Pleuropneumonia (HP), Atrophic Rhinitis Epidemic Pneumonia (SEP), Swine Pneumonia, Escherichia coli Diarrhea, Umbilical Corditis, Salmonella Arthritis, Swine Erysipelas, Metritis, No Milk Disease (MMA) fur animal reproductive tract disease
  • Usage and dosage: fox, raccoon, mink, fur animals, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, etc.: 0.5ml per 10 kg body weight. For normal bacterial infections, intramuscular injection, once a day, for three consecutive days; when treating with MMA, only use the medicine for 1-2 days. For respiratory diseases and severe Salmonella infections, the dosage should be doubled for intramuscular injection for 5 days.
  • Taboo: It is forbidden to use in young dogs and cats, which may cause hip dysplasia or femoral head necrosis.

Conclusion

Enrofloxacin is a quinolone compound bacteriostatic agent, also called ethyl ciprofloxacin. It is a special animal medicine with good curative effect and wide application.

BALLYA provides a quinolones erythromycin combo test kit to tell you if there are quinolones residues (including enrofloxacin) and erythromycin residues in dairy products you eat every day.

References

Recent Posts

FOOD SAFETYMYCOTOXIN TESTPESTICIDE TESTHONEY TESTMILK TESTEGG TESTLIQUID HANDLER
Proudly designed by BALLYA
linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram