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2019 The Ultimate Guide: How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

Posted on: August 7, 2019, by Victoria

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

I. Feeding and management of various types of dairy cows

1. Lactating cow

2. Replacement cow

3. Dry cow

II. Categorization of Dairy Cattle Feed

1. Roughage

2. Concentrate

3. Juicy feed

4.Animal feed

5. Mineral feed

6. Feed additive

Ⅲ. Improvement of milk yield of dairy cows

1. Ensuring comprehensive nutrition in diets

2. Breast care

3. Improve the feeding environment

IV. Dairy cattle raising in different seasons

1. Set temperature in spring

2. Add Water Frequently and sunshade in summer

3. Disinfection in autumn

4. Add warm water and do sun exposure in winter

V. Construction of dairy farms

1. Site selection

2. Planning of dairy farm

3. Construction of dairy farm

Ⅵ. Ways to achieve high benefits in dairy cattle breeding

With the improvement of living standards, dairy products have become an important food for people to consume because of its rich and comprehensive nutrition and easy to digest and absorb. To meet the increasing demand for dairy consumption of urban and rural residents, dairy processing enterprises must continuously provide high-quality and safe products to the market. As the first workshop of dairy processing enterprises, dairy farms must provide sufficient and high-quality raw milk. Therefore, how to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows has become the focus of many farmers.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

I. Feeding and management of various types of dairy cows

1. Lactating cow

Lactating cows refer to cows that begin to lactate after calving and stop lactation about two months before the next delivery. A lactation period of lactating cows can be roughly divided into early lactation, peak lactation, mid-lactation, and late lactation.

①. Early lactation period--time ranges from delivery to 21 days postpartum.
The main points of feeding are to prepare for postpartum recovery, epidemic prevention and control, and peak milk production. After delivery, cows should drink warm bran brown sugar water in time, and we should do a good job of milking, examining the uterus, disinfecting or dosing. When transfer to diets for milk production period, we should increase 0.25 kg of concentrate per head per day and 1 kg of concentrate per 3 kg of milk to determine the concentrate consumption, which to prepare for high yield.

②. Peak lactation period--time ranges from 21 to 100 days after delivery.
The main point of feeding is to provide a nutritious diet. Provide high-quality forage, vitamin, and rumen buffer. Attention should be paid to the control of fatness in dairy cows. We should prolong feeding time and increase dry matter intake of dairy cows. Dry matter intake should account for more than 3.5% of weight, 16%~18% of crude protein, 0.7% of calcium and 0.45% of phosphorus. Do a good job of postpartum estrus detection and timely mating of dairy cows.

③. Mid-lactation period--time ranges from 101 to 200 days after delivery.
We should control the concentration of dietary nutrients and prolong the peak period of milk production. Reduce dietary energy and protein content appropriately and increase green forage and roughage. When milk production declines, we are not anxious to reduce concentrate to improve lactation yield. The dry matter intake reached 3.0% of weight, 13% of crude protein, 0.45% of calcium and 0.35% of phosphorus, and the ratio of concentrate to roughage gradually changed to 40:60.

We should control the concentration of dietary nutrients and prolong the peak period of milk production. Reduce dietary energy and protein content appropriately and increase green forage and roughage. When milk production declines, we are not anxious to reduce concentrate to improve lactation yield. The dry matter intake reached 3.0% of weight, 13% of crude protein, 0.45% of calcium and 0.35% of phosphorus, and the ratio of concentrate to roughage gradually changed to 40:60.

④. Late lactation--time from 201 days postpartum to the cessation of milk.

The main points of feeding are to reduce the concentration of dietary nutrients, prevent cows from over fattening and abortion. Prepare for dry milk. The proportion of concentrate to roughage was changed to 30:70 by increasing the feed of roughage and reducing the feed of concentrate.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
2. Replacement cow

Replacement cows are cows born to the first calf or bulls born to the age of 24 months. They are divided into calves and young cattle (young cows and young bulls).

Calves (cattle born to 6 months old)

①. Dietary supply

The calves should eat about 2 kg of colostrum at 38 ℃ in time within 2 hours after birth, and ensure it is adequate so that they can get antibodies as soon as possible, and then feed the second time at 1-2 hours interval. The calves should be fed within 4 hours after birth, and the amount of colostrum should also be about 2 kg, lasting for 3-4 days, feeding three times a day. When calves are fed with normal milk, they are fed three times a day, each time controlled at about 2L. It should be noted that the temperature of normal milk is also 38 ℃, and the feeding time and quantity are fixed.

After 3 weeks of age, the rumen, reticulum, and omasum of calves developed rapidly, and microorganisms entered the forestomach (rumen, reticulum, and omasum) along with the mouth due to a small amount of feed and water. At this time, the calf began to ruminate. And we can begin to feed them with fresh grass, potherb, high-quality hay, crushed concentrate and so on. With the growth of age, we should gradually increase the amount of feed and roughage.

This not only avoids the disease caused by too tender forestomach, but also accelerates the development of forestomach, promotes the reproduction and growth of microorganisms and ciliates in the rumen, and gradually strengthens the function of digestion of forage and feed, which lays a good foundation for cattle to eat a large amount of roughage later, and for skeleton development rapidly.

②.Daily management

Excision of accessory nipples.
Some calves are born with 1 to 2 nipples besides 4 normal nipples. These extra nipples are called accessory nipples. It not only affects the appearance of calves but also causes bacterial infection and affects milking. When calves are 1 to 2 months old, the accessory nipples can be removed. The specific method is to disinfect the breast first, then cut off the accessory nipples from the base with sharp bending shears, and disinfect the wound with 5%-10% iodine tincture to prevent infection.

An adequate supply of drinking water.
Because the water content in milk can not meet the normal metabolic needs of calves, cows must drink enough water during the lactation period. Initially, 1/2~1/3 of hot water can be added to milk, and a water trough can be set up in the calf yard to allow calves to drink freely.

Strengthen exercise.
In addition to cold and cloudy weather, calves can be allowed to move freely 10 days after birth and should be properly driven after 4 to 6 weeks. The daily exercise time should not be less than 1 hour to enhance the calf's physique.

Be diligent in cleaning and observing. 

Calves have a high requirement for the living environment. We should clean and change their bedding grass frequently in the calf shed and keep it clean, dry, warm, spacious and ventilated. When feeding calves, we should observe their appetite, exercise, and spirit; when sweeping the floor, observe their feces. Healthy calves are alert, bright-eyed and have shiny coats, otherwise, they may become ill. If it is found that calves have sunken eyes, drooping ears, tightly packed skin, and heavily contaminated feces, it can be initially diagnosed as enteritis.

Be clean. 
The feed and milk of calves should not be mildewed or frozen and caked, and the metal such as nails and fecal impurities should be prevented from mixing. Commodity feed must within the shelf-life. If the self-made feed is to be fed, it must be ready-made. When artificial feeding, the cows and feeding tools must be cleaned after each use. Brush the calf body 1 to 2 times a day to ensure that the calf is not polluted by sewage and feces and reduce the incidence of disease.

To prevent licking addiction.
Newborn calves are best fed in a single column. After each feeding, the residual milk in the mouth and nose of the calves should be wiped clean. For calves who have developed licking habit, a small wooden board can be put in front of the nose to correct it. Besides, the single-loop calf feeding method plays an important role in controlling the occurrence of colibacillosis and reducing the incidence of umbilical cord inflammation in calves.

Remove the horns. 
To make calves easy to manage after adulthood, the electrothermal and chemical methods can be used to remove the horns. The electrothermal method is suitable for calves aged 3-5 weeks and the chemical method is suitable for calves aged 4-10 days. Timely horns removal can reduce stress.

To make calves easy to manage after adulthood, the electrothermal and chemical methods can be used to remove the horns. The electrothermal method is suitable for calves aged 3-5 weeks and the chemical method is suitable for calves aged 4-10 days. Timely horns removal can reduce stress.

③.Weaning period

Calves usually need long preparation from suckling to weaning. First, the calves should be trained to eat hay and concentrate as early as possible. Usually, concentrate feeding is trained around 7 days old, hay feeding is trained around 10 days old and silage feeding is trained around 2 months old. After that, attention should be paid to the preparation of diets to ensure that they contain 15% to 20% of crude protein, more than 8% of crude fiber, as well as numerous minerals and vitamins. Finally, we need to know the time of weaning. Usually, the calves are 45 days old and can be weaned when they can eat about 1 kg of starter every day.

The calves from weaning to 6 months old are called weaned calves. At this time, they should be grouped. The calves with similar weight and age should be fed together. The number of each group should be 10-15, and the proportion of concentrate and roughage should be adjusted according to the actual situation. Grouping of calves can promote their growth and development consistently as much as possible, which is conducive to the synchronization of estrus.

When formulating diets, we need to ensure that they contain more than 30% of neutral detergent fiber. Usually, it can be matched with 1.8~2.2 kg of high-quality hay and 1.4~1.8 kg of mixed concentrate to ensure that the daily gain of calves can reach about 750 g at this stage.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

Young cattle (young cows aged 6 months to the first calving and young bulls aged 6 months to 24 months)

Young cattle are bred cattle, referring to cattle from weaning to sexual maturity before mating, generally at the age of 6 to 18 months. At this stage, the cattle are in the period of the strongest growth, the most metabolic, and the fastest growth and development, and the weight increase linearly.

①. Dietary supply

It is necessary to fix the feeding time to promote the formation of well-conditioned reflex, stimulate the secretion of digestive juice, and enhance the digestion of feed and the absorption of nutrients. In order to meet the needs of rapid development, green forage and roughage should be the main feed and some concentrates should be supplemented appropriately. Bred cattle were fed three times a day at 5 a.m.in the morning, 12 p.m. at noon and 7 p.m in the evening respectively. Feeding should be fed less frequently each time, first roughage and then concentrate, and then drinking water after 30 minutes of feeding.

②.Daily management

Group management. Groups of bred cattle should be divided according to their age and actual weight, to facilitate staff feeding and management, while providing enough fresh feed and clean drinking water.

Close observation. Observe the fatness of bred cattle regularly to prevent overweight. Otherwise, it will affect the development of the skeleton, mammary breast, and reproductive organs. For dairy cattle over the age of 9 months, we should pay close attention to the first estrus and record it in detail.

Strengthen exercise. We need to insist on outdoor sports for bred cattle, which can ensure appetite, developed heart and lung, strong body and broad chest of them. If the cow lacks exercise and feeds too much concentrate, it is easy to lead to overweight, thicker body fat, shorter trunk and height, premature aging, shorter utilization years and lower milk production.

Breast massage. When bred cattle reach the age of 7~18 months, they should be massaged breasts once a day for 5-l0 minutes each time, which can promote the rapid development of mammary glands and increase milk production. Also, massage on the breasts of bred cattle can make them adapt to milking operation as soon as possible and prevent rejection of milking after calving.

Brush and train. Bred cattle should be brushed once or twice a day for 5 to 10 minutes each time, which can keep the body clean, accelerate skin metabolism, and cultivate a gentle character. Also, the bred cattle need to be tie-down trained and slot recognized, which is beneficial to the management of adult cows. Moreover, attention should be paid to regularly check and trim the hoofs of bred cattle.

Weigh regularly. Bred cattle should be regularly measured and weighed monthly so that we can check and know their growth and development, and accordingly adjust the dietary structure in time to ensure good body condition.

③.Timely mating

Bred cattle need to be determined their the appropriate mating age according to their developmental state. Early mating will affect its normal growth and development, resulting in a decrease in lifetime lactation and significantly shortening the utilization years. Late mating will lead to increased feeding costs while shortening the utilization years. The body weight of bred cattle can reach 70% of the adult body weight at the age of 13-14 months, that is to say, mating can be carried out at this time. The advance of mating can greatly increase the final milk production of dairy cows, thus significantly increasing the economic benefits.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
3. Dry cow

After a lactation period and 60 days before the next delivery, we need to dry milk for dairy cows, to reduce the amount of concentrate and milk yield or even stop milk production, so that breast function can be restored. From 60 days before delivery to the next delivery, this stage is called dry period, and the cows in this stage are called dry cows.

①.Daily management during the dry period

Early-dry period.
It means that from the day of ceasing milk to the day when the breast becomes soft and lactation activity stops completely. This period takes about 1 to 2 weeks. The feeding method of dairy cows should be adjusted starting one week from the dry period, and the drinking water should be controlled every day. Free drinking water should be changed into regular and quantitative drinking water. In general, the early stage of the dry period depends on the fatness of dairy cows. The daily feeding amount of silage is 10 kg, hay is 3 kg and the concentrate is 2 kg. Concentrate should be fed with complete ration with low calcium and high phosphorus diet. Minerals and vitamins should be balanced. At the same time, we should observe the change of breast in a dry period for a week. If we find breast enlargement, redness, and lump, we should deal with it in time if cows feel pain in our hands. We should empty the milk in the breast once more and continue to dry milk after treatment.

Mid-dry period. 
First, we should observe the fatness of dairy cows. Generally, the daily feed quantity of concentrate is 3 kg, silage is 8 kg and hay is 4 kg. At the same time, the concentrate should be fed with complete ration with low calcium, high phosphorus, and low salt. Minerals and vitamins should be balanced.

Late-dry period. 
It refers to the period from 2 weeks before calving to delivery (also known as the prenatal period). According to the cow's body condition, appetite, fecal type, and expected milk production at that time, it was determined to increase concentrate feeding. Generally, the concentrate was increased to 1~1.5 kg per 100 kg of body weight, but the ratio of roughage to concentrate diet must be controlled between 30:70~40:60, and the crude fiber level should not be less than 17%. The low-calcium diet should be fed 20~30 days before delivery to reduce the calcium content in the dry matter to 0.2% and salt consumption. The anionic salt feed can be fed to prevent milk fever in dairy cows for 2 to 3 days before delivery. At the same time, to prevent constipation, the amount of laxative feed such as bran should be properly increased in concentrate, which can account for 15%-23% of the concentrate.

②.Methods of dry milk method

Gradual-dry milk.
Lactation was stopped in 1 to 2 weeks. Generally, reducing the amount of juicy feed such as grass, root tuber, and stem tuber and concentrate feeding, limiting drinking water, increasing the amount of hay feeding and exercise, and stopping massage of breasts are adopted. Then change the milking time and times, to disrupt the cow's life habits, gradually reducing the milking times from three times to one time, and finally, force the cow to stop milk. This method is generally used for high-yielding cattle.

Quick-dry milk.
Dry the milk in 5 to 7 days. In general, stop feeding juicy feed and reduce concentrate feeding. The main method is hay feeding, while strengthening the exercise of dairy cows, to change their life rules. On the first day of stopping milk, it was changed from three milking times to two milking times, and the next day to one milking time. When the daily milk production drops to 5~8 kg, milking can be stopped. The last milking should be cleaned, and then injected with antibiotic oil or penicillin and streptomycin into four breast areas, then sealed papillary foramina with antibiotic ointment nipples, or other commercial dry milk agents can be used to seal nipples at one time. This method is suitable for medium and low yield cattle.

Sudden-dry milk. Suddenly stop milking on the scheduled dry day, rely on the internal pressure of the breast to reduce lactation, and finally dry milk. Generally, after 3 to 5 days, breast milk gradually absorbed, about 10 days breast will be shrink and soft. For high-yielding cows, milking should be repeated once a week after stopping milk. After milking, antibiotics should be injected into the nipples, or other dry milk agents should be injected into the nipples and sealed.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

II. Categorization of Dairy Cattle Feed

1. Roughage

Feed whose crude fiber content in dry matter is greater than or equal to 18% is generally called roughage, which mainly includes hay, straw, green feed, and silage.

①. Hay.
Wild or home planted Poaceae or leguminous forage with moisture content less than 15%, such as hay (autumn white grass), Leymus Chinensis, ryegrass, alfalfa, etc.

②. Straw. 
They are straw, vine, seedling, pod, shell and so on after harvesting. Such as corn straw, rice straw, millet straw, peanut vines, sweet potato vines, potato seedlings, pods, bean straw, etc. There are dry and green.

③. Green feed.
Wild or home planted Poaceae or leguminous forage and crop plants with a moisture content greater than or equal to 45%. Such as wild grass, green barley, green oats, alfalfa, clover, milk vetch, and whole-plant corn silage.

④. Silage.
It is made from green feed or green crop straw by chopping, compacting, sealing and lactic acid fermentation. The water content is generally 65%~75%, and the pH value is about 4.2. Silage with 45~55% of water content is called low-moisture silage or semi-dry silage, and its pH value is about 4.5.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
2. Concentrate

Feed containing less than 18% of crude fiber in dry matter is collectively called concentrate, which is divided into energy feed and protein supplement. Concentrate with the crude protein content of dry matter less than 20% are called energy feed; concentrate with the crude protein content of dry matter more than or equal to 20% are called protein supplements. Concentrated feed mainly includes cereal, bran, and cake.

①. Cereal.
The seeds of grain crops, such as corn, sorghum, barley, oats, and rice are cereals and generally belong to energy feed.

②. Bran. 
Various by-products of grain dry processing, such as wheat bran, corn husk, sorghum bran, and rice bran, are also energy feed.

③. Cake. 
By-products of oil processing, such as bean cake (meal), peanut cake (meal), rapeseed cake (meal), cottonseed cake (meal), gourd cake, sunflower cake, and corn germ cake are cake. Except for corn germ cake, which belongs to energy feed, all of them belong to protein supplement. The crude fiber content of cottonseed cake and sunflower seed cake with the shell is more than 18%, which can be classified as roughage.

3.Juicy feed

The feed with crude fiber content less than 18% in dry matter and moisture content more than 75% is called juicy feed, which is mainly root tuber, stem tuber, melon and fruit, vegetable and dregs.

①. Root tuber, stem tuber, melon and fruit, and vegetable. Such as carrots, radishes, sweet potatoes, potatoes, cabbage, pumpkin, watermelon, apples, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage leaves, are energy feed.

②. Dregs. The by-products of wet processing, such as grain, beans, and root tubers, are grains. Starch residue, sugar residue, and wine residue belong to energy feed. Tofu residue, soy sauce residue, and beer residue belong to protein supplements. Beet pulp should be classified as roughage because the crude fiber content of dry matter is more than 18%.

4.Animal feed

Animal feed is products derived from animals and by-products processed by them. Such as milk, milk powder, fish meal, bone meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, feather meal, silkworm chrysalis and other crude protein content of dry matter is more than or equal to 20%, are protein supplements. Beef fat, lard and other crude protein content of dry matter is less than 20%, are energy feed. Bone meal, egg-shell powder, and shell powder are used to supplement calcium and phosphorus, they should be classified as mineral feed.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
5.Mineral feed

The natural minerals available for feeding, called mineral feed, which is aim to supplement the constant elements(which account for more than 0.01% of body weight) such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorine and sulfur. Such as rock powder, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, salt, magnesium sulfate and so on.

6.Feed additive

To supplement nutrients, improve production performance, feed utilization rate, and feed quality, promote growth and reproduction, and ensure the health of dairy cows, a small or trace amounts of nutritive or non-nutritive substances are added in feed, which is called feed additives. Commonly used feed additives for dairy cows are: vitamin additives, such as vitamin A, D, E, nicotinic acid and so on; trace elements (less than 0.01% of body weight) additives, such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, and selenium; amino acid additives, such as protective lysine and methionine; rumen buffer regulators, such as sodium bicarbonate, urease inhibitors, enzymes, such as amylase, protease, lipase, cellulose decomposition enzymes; active bacteria (probiotics) preparations, such as lactic acid bacteria, aspergillus, and yeast preparations. There are also feed mildew inhibitors or antioxidants.

Ⅲ. Improvement of milk yield of dairy cows

1. Ensuring comprehensive nutrition in diets

Dairy cows in the last 20 days of lactation, to ensure that the loss caused by the previous lactation period can be fully compensated while reserving enough nutrients for the next lactation peak. At this stage, dairy cows should increase the intake of concentrate, absorb enough energy, avoid glycogen depletion during the peak lactation period, and excessive body fat decomposition, resulting in excessive ketone production and causes ketosis.

The feeding quantity of concentrate should be moderate. When the postpartum milk yield reaches 20~30 kg, the concentrate can be increased by 1 kg per 4 kg of milk production. At the same time, the proportion of concentrate in the diet was more than 47%, reaching the peak lactation period, and the proportion of concentrate could increase to 55%.

During the milk production stage, the amount of chloride ion needed by cows is higher than usual. In order to ensure that cows maintain good health in milk production and more lactation, it is necessary to add appropriate amount of salt in the feed, usually controlled at 1.8% to 2.4% of the dry weight of the diet, which can meet the needs of chloride ions of the body, while increasing milk production by about 15%. Attention should be paid to keeping the dairy cows' exuberant appetite, we should allow them to eat as much feed as possible. If it is not possible to increase the number of feedings, the concentrate should be fed at least three times a day, while allowing them to freely feed on roughage.

2. Breast care

Hot compress on the breast during the perinatal period. 
Dairy cows’ breasts volume will gradually increase when they reach parturition. At this time, daily hot compress massage with a hot water towel can accelerate breast blood circulation, clean breast skin and stimulate breast development, thus laying a good foundation for improving milk production.

Elimination of embolism in the breast. 
Dairy cows from the beginning of the perinatal period, milk will gather in the breast for a long time, and when secreted milk, cakes form. If there is no timely elimination of embolism in the breast by massage, not only milk production is affected, but also prone to mastitis. Therefore, the staff is required to observe the postpartum dairy cows and should apply hot compress immediately when finding that there are cakes in the breast. At the same time, they should continue to massage and rub the cakes with their hands to dredge the lactating organs, squeezing out the silt in the breast until the cakes subside.

Massage breasts. 
Only about 60% of milk in the breast acinus can enter the breast pool without massage, but more than 90% of the milk can enter the breast pool when fully massaged. It can be seen that massage of cow breast is very important for the expansion and dredging of lactating organs, improving breast circulation and increasing milk flow, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis to prevent mastitis.

Increase the number of milking. 
The number of milking per day has been changed from one to two times, which can increase milk production by 20%~30% and another 10% from two to three times. This is mainly because milking can promote the metabolic process of breast excretion and lactation, thus activating and accelerating breast secretion.

Prevention of mastitis.
The milk yield of the dairy cow will be significantly affected by mastitis, which is usually caused by the inexperience of milkmen, deterioration of surplus milk, unsanitary breasts and traumatic infection of bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to wash the utensils and brush cattle body regularly. Milking must strictly abide by the operating norms. Massage breasts regularly, no empty milking is allowed when using milkers, and nipples should be taken medicine bath before using milker or after milking to prevent mastitis.

3. Improve the feeding environment

Free-range husbandry. If the conditions of the cattle farm permit, grazing can be adopted appropriately, which can not only let the dairy cows eat more good and palatable grass, but also increase their exercise significantly. The daily 3~3.5 km exercise of dairy cows can strengthen the physique, stimulate blood circulation, accelerate gastrointestinal peristalsis and digestive function, increasing milk yield by more than 500 g, while improving reproductive performance. Besides, grazing can also increase lighting, especially in winter, because of the low temperature of the external environment, tethered feeding can not get enough light, and their milk yield has decreased. This is because the growth and development of dairy cows and lactation are largely affected by light. An appropriate increase in light time can not only increase the weight gain rate but also increase the milk yield.

Keep the cowshed dry and clean. In the process of dairy cattle breeding, feces should be cleaned regularly to ensure that the shed is dry and clean, and pay attention to strengthening the work of killing flies and mosquitoes. Especially in hot summer, the body surface can be wiped regularly, which can not only effectively prevent heat and cool down, keep the cattle body surface clean and hygienic, but also improve milk yield and ensure the quality of milk.

Reduce harmful gases and noise. For closed cowshed, if there is no good ventilation, it will increase the concentration of harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, which will affect the health and milk production of dairy cows. Besides, excessive noise in the shed will affect the production and reproduction of dairy cows. When the noise reaches 110~150 decibels, the milk yield of dairy cows will be reduced by 10%. It is usually required that the noise in the shed be controlled below 90 decibels during the day and below 50 decibels at night.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

IV. Dairy cattle raising in different seasons

1. Set temperature in spring

①. The temperature of drinking water

The temperature of drinking water for lactating cows:

The temperature of common drinking water: Cows drinking cold water affects milk production. In spring, it is advisable to keep the drinking water temperature of cows at 9 to 15 ℃, which can increase milk production by 8.7% compared with 0 to 2 ℃.

The temperature of wheat bran water: Dairy cows are thirsty after giving birth because they lose a lot of water, and their body temperature is low. At this time, wheat bran water with a temperature higher than the body temperature of 1~2 ℃ instead of drinking water has the effect of replenishing body fluids and warming the body. Drinking cold water is forbidden, otherwise, it may cause diseases such as retention of placenta and cold.

The temperature of drinking water for calf :

The temperature of common drinking water: Body temperature of the calf is higher than adult cattle, the temperature of drinking water is suitable for 35 ~38℃ generally.

The temperature of milk for calves: When calves are artificially feeding, colostrum or normal milk should be fed after heating and disinfection, and then cooled to 35~ 37 ℃.

②. Temperature of cowshed

Dairy cows are cold-resistant and not heat-resistant, but the cold should be limited. The most suitable temperature for dairy cows is 12 ~ 14 ℃ generally, and for pregnant cows and lactating cows is 16 ~20 ℃. If the temperature of cowshed for lactating cow is above 24 ℃ or below -4℃, the milk yield will decrease. The optimum temperature for calves is 35 to 38 ℃.

③. The temperature of water for breast scrubbing

Before each milking, cows need to be wet their breasts and nipples with dry towels dipped in warm water from 45 to 50 ℃, then massage their breasts. After 1 to 2 minutes, the "lactation" reflex is produced and can start milking immediately. Never scrub their nipples with overheated or overcooled water, otherwise, it will reduce milk yield.

④. The temperature of preservation and disinfection of milk

Milk preservation: 
The temperature of newly extruded milk is close to that of the cow. If it does not cool down, it will deteriorate quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to immerse the container inflowing cold water immediately and fall the temperature of the milk to 4 ~10 ℃.

Milk disinfection:
Milk contains a variety of harmful microorganisms, if not disinfected, these harmful microorganisms multiply in large numbers, making milk rancid. Disinfection does not use drugs, the main method is "non-high temperature" heating disinfection, which is the Pasteur disinfection method. The method is to heat milk to 75 ~80 ℃, keep for 15 ~ 30 minutes, then immediately stop heating.

⑤. The storage temperature of bovine semen

Sperm is cold-resistant and not heat-resistant, it can be inactivated at 54.5℃. Since the 1950s, semen preservation has entered the era of "ultra-low temperature" preservation. At present, liquid nitrogen is mostly used, and the temperature is - 196 ℃, which can preserve semen for decades without deterioration.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

2. Add Water Frequently and sunshade in summer

①. Add Water Frequently

Milk contains 86%~89% of water and 11%~14% of protein, fat, lactose, minerals, and vitamins. In the hot summer, cows need more water than the other three seasons. Adult cows need 1.5 kg of drinking water per 0.5 kg of dry matter and 1.5~2 kg of drinking water per 0.5 kg of milk. Adequate free drinking water is conducive to the normal synthesis of milk, reducing body temperature and diseases caused by hot summer weather. Therefore, to meet the drinking water demand of dairy cows, the cattle farm should set up an automatic water dispenser in the cowshed or cow yard.

②. Sunshade

In summer, although the forage conditions are good, the high temperature, hot air and poor appetite of dairy cows and acceleration of respiratory frequency affect lactation. It can reduce body temperature and prevent heatstroke by building a shed or shading on the roof of a cowshed or cow yard. If necessary, it can be washed by cold water and spray water to reduce the body temperature of cows.

③.Daily management

In summer, to alleviate heat stress, feed formulation can be adjusted appropriately.

Firstly, the proportion of roughage and concentrate should be controlled at 1:1 to reduce the proportion of high-fiber feed which produces more heat in digestion and metabolism, and the proportion of concentrate should be increased by 10%. Fatty acid calcium and cottonseed can be added appropriately to ensure that the fat content is not less than 5%. If the concentrate is soaked in water and fed after being prepared into porridge-like, the effect will be better. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation of 150 g per day can alleviate stress.

Secondly, in summer, when the weather is hot and the animal body sweats a lot, we should pay attention to the supplementation of potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, and calcium.

Thirdly, the feeding time in the morning was advanced to 7 o'clock when the temperature was low, and the afternoon was postponed to 6 o'clock sunset. In addition to adjusting the feeding time, it can also increase the feeding times, such as four times a day, or one more feeding at night. In a word, it should be ensured that dairy cows can feed at lower temperatures every day and avoid high-temperature feeding.

Fourth, attention should also be paid to feed management to prevent mildew of feed and forage grass. It should be placed in a ventilated and cool place, with a special person responsible for the supervision, and daily observation of whether there is rot. Timely treatment of feed problems, to prevent the body function decline caused by eating moldy feed by mistake, or even the occurrence of death.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
3. Disinfection in autumn

①.Feeding environment

The purpose of disinfection is to kill pathogenic microorganisms on the media, to make them harmless, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in livestock and poultry, and to cut off the transmission of infectious diseases.

Personnel disinfection. 
Breeders should change their clothes in time when they enter the production area. Ultraviolet disinfection lasts for 3-5 minutes. Workwear should not be worn out of the production area. Outsiders should be avoided as far as possible. Visitors should thoroughly disinfect and wear work clothes and shoes when they visit the production area. Work clothes or shoes should be disinfected regularly with a certain concentration of organic iodine mixture or coal phenol soap aqueous solution.

Environmental disinfection.
The surrounding environment of the cowshed (including the yard) is disinfected with 2% caustic soda or sprayed with quicklime once every 1-2 weeks. The sewage pool, excrement pit and sewer outlet around and inside the site are disinfected once a month with bleaching powder. Disinfection pools should be set up at the entrance of the gate and cowshed. 2% pyroalkali or coal phenol soap solution should be used, and the disinfectant in the pools should be replaced frequently.

Cowshed disinfection. 
The cowshed should be thoroughly cleaned after each trough feeding, regularly washed with high-pressure water guns, and sprinkled lime around the cowshed, under the delivery bed and the cow bed, or with 2% fire alkali for spray disinfection.

②. Daily management

The main factor determining the milk yield of dairy cows by adjusting dietary composition is the content of crude fiber in feed. Feed proportion should be adjusted in time to diversify. Crude fiber affects milk fat, and milk fat is the key to milk production. If milk fat increases, milk production will be higher. Roughage is best to feed silage, micro-silage or brewer's grains to replace the green juicy feed for dairy cows in summer. Therefore, farmers should first choose suitable feed for dairy cows, such as sweet sorghum stalk, or adding a little baking soda in the feed, which can appetize and promote the digestion of crude fiber, or feed the cows a night supper. Dairy cows producing more than 32 kilograms of milk per day should be fed with silage in autumn, which should be controlled at 17~22 kilograms per day. When the concentrate is supplied, protein feed remains unchanged, and the maize supply will increase by 20%-50%.

Improve nutritional level. 
Farmers can feed dairy cows with high-quality forage, more concentrate or high-fat substances to improve dietary energy. In autumn, 1%~1.5% of legume or animal fat can be added every day to increase the protein content in the complete ration so that its content is about 18%.

Increase the palatability of feed.
Farmers can enhance the appetite of dairy cows by making complete ration with good palatability. The porridge can be boiled with 140 kg of feed and 600 kg of water every day, and 9 kg of brown sugar can be added, then pour it on the leftovers three times so that all the leftovers can be eaten up. Some additives can be added to the silage process to improve the quality and palatability of silage. The commonly used additives are non-protein nitrogen, enzymes, bacterial inoculants, and preservatives. In recent years, green juice fermentation broth, as a pure natural inoculant of lactic acid bacteria, can make wild lactic acid bacteria multiply in large quantities under anaerobic conditions. Adding formic acid preservatives can significantly improve the degradation efficiency of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibers and acid detergent fibers in alfalfa silage.

Balance amino acid. 
There is also an imbalance of amino acids in the small intestine of dairy cows, mainly that lysine and methionine can not meet the needs of dairy cows. By changing the amino acid pattern in the small intestine, the production performance and protein utilization rate of ruminants can be improved. The digestible amino acids in the small intestine of dairy cows with 1 kg milk production (containing 3%~3.3% of crude protein) ranged from 41 to 45 grams, and the lowest requirement of lysine and methionine for high-yielding cows with 30 kg milk production per day are 6.5% and 2% of the total digestible amino acids in the small intestine respectively. Because of the degradation of amino acids by rumen microorganisms, the protected products must be selected to supplement amino acids to dairy cows.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
4. Add warm water and do sun exposure in winter

①. Feeding with warm water in winter

The water consumption of cows was affected by dry matter intake, climatic conditions, dietary composition and physiological status of cows. Dairy cows in dry periods need 35 kg of water per day, dairy cows with 15 kg of milk production per day need 50 kg of water per day, and dairy cows with 40 kg of milk production per day need 100 kg of water per day. The normal body temperature of dairy cows ranges from 38.5 to 39 ℃, and the temperature of drinking water in winter and spring ranges from 10 to 19 ℃, which can meet the maximum drinking water requirement for dairy cow production, reduce stress reaction and feed consumption and increase milking performance.

②. Sun exposure

Calcium deficiency and imbalance of calcium and phosphorus ratio of cows in winter will directly or indirectly affect reproduction. Sun exposure can promote the synthesis of organic calcium, increase the absorption of phosphorus in feed and the fertility rate, prevent osteoporosis in adult cows, and reduce the occurrence of postpartum paralysis and retained placenta.

③. Daily management

Strengthen the management of drinking water for dairy cows in winter.
Water is an important component of generating cells in dairy cows. Water participates in the physiological and biochemical processes of digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients. Water is very important to maintain the life and production of dairy cows. Because of the cold weather in winter, water is easy to freeze, drinking facilities are prone to malfunction, and the problem of insufficient drinking water for dairy cows occurs. Dairy cows need water supply all day in winter. The temperature of drinking water should be maintained at 9~15 ℃. Excessive or low water temperature will affect the drinking water quantity, feed utilization rate and health of dairy cows.

Adjust dairy cow's diet in time to adapt to environmental temperature changes. 
After entering winter, due to the low temperature and cold climate, the heat dissipation of dairy cows becomes faster, and the energy requirement of dairy cows to maintain body temperature increases. The feed ratio of dairy cows should be adjusted in winter, which is 10%~15% higher than the normal feeding standard. The energy level of concentrate and the intake of dairy cows should be increased to meet the nutritional needs of dairy cows in winter.

Supplementation of minerals and trace elements.
To ensure the calcium and phosphorus content in the diet in winter, When the calcium and phosphorus in the feed are insufficient, the growth of bred cow is blocked, and cartilage disease is prone to occur. In serious cases, rickets will occur. When the calcium and phosphorus deficiency is long-term in lactating cows and pregnant cows, osteoporosis, and bone and limb deformation will occur, which seriously affects the health and milk production of cows. Then, licking bricks of trace elements should be set up in the farm to allow cows to lick freely to ensure the healthy development of replacement cows and give full play to the production performance of adult cows.

Do a good job in reproduction and fetal protection. 
Pregnancy in winter can not only avoid the harm caused by calving in the hot summer, but also the calf care is easier. To lay a good foundation for the next year's cows production, we should do a good job of cows’ breed in winter and improve the conception rate. It can also save unnecessary expenses such as the increase in nursing costs caused by calving in summer.

In winter, cows fed rotten and frozen feed, slipped and wrestled were all factors causing abortion. For this reason, we should do a good job of securing the fetus in winter. First, to meet the nutritional needs of pregnant cows, especially to ensure the supply of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Second, not to feed frozen and deteriorated forage and frozen drinking water. Third, to carry out delicacy management, not to treat pregnant cows roughly, and strictly prohibit frightening, slipping and crashing.

Do a good job of keeping warm and windproof in cowsheds.
Cowshed, milking hall and yard are the habitats of dairy cows. To reduce the heat dissipation capacity of the cowshed and improve the heat preservation performance of cowshed, the windward windows of cowshed or milking hall should be blocked with plastic film, brick and straw curtain, and the doors on both sides of cowshed or milking hall should be closed in time.

A fully open feeding unit can set up plastic cloth, canvas, color band cloth, and other materials to shield the cold wind on the windward side, and a temporary windshield wall can be built with crop straw and building materials in the windward direction of the farm field.

For independent calf shed, the plastics film will be used to close the yard and turn it into the temporary plastic warm shed. If it is a movable calf barn, which can be moved into the shed. The ground of the calf shed should be paved with a thick mattress to avoid calves lying on the cold ground.

Also, we should clean up the excrement and collected water in the shed, keep the ground dry, and pay attention to ventilation when the temperature is high at noon.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?

V. Construction of dairy farms

1. Site selection

The site selection of dairy farms should be in line with the plans of local land use development and village construction development. Distance from the residential area is at least 300 meters, the terrain is dry and flat, and the slope is less than 20 degrees, which is easy to drain. It has good ventilation and sunshine, no pollution source nearby, and good soil quality in the field. Distance from major traffic roads, factories, mines, enterprises, other pastures, and animal products processing factories is at least 1000 meters. With adequate power supply and good communication infrastructure, and abundant clean water sources nearby should be provided for easy access. Attention should be paid to the fact that no site shall be built in areas threatened by floods, such as water conservation area, tourist areas, nature reserves, areas seriously polluted by the environment, areas where livestock and poultry epidemics frequently occur, valleys, and lowland.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
2. Planning of dairy farm

Large-scale dairy farm should have disinfection room, disinfection pool, veterinary room, adult dairy cowshed, delivery room, calf shed, bred cowshed, observation cowshed, isolated cowshed, feed room, silage tank, ammonia tank, dung yard, waste treatment facilities, cow loading platform, garage, office, dormitory and other facilities, which are divided according to their functions. The layout will be carried out to form three functional areas, which are living management area, production area, and isolation area. According to the prevailing wind direction and topography throughout the year, the management area and living area will be placed in the upper wind direction and higher terrain, while the manure treatment field and the sick livestock shed will be placed in the lowest wind direction and terrain. The production area is in the middle. And the long axis of the cowshed is east-west, and the cowshed is 15 degrees south or east-south.

3. Construction of dairy farm

①.Management area:
The buildings and facilities in the management area should meet the needs of community management, technical archives, data management, reproductive technology services, veterinary medicine technology services, epidemic prevention technology services, feeding technology services, feed processing, and other functions.

②. Production area:
Construction facilities in the production area should meet the needs of cow breeding and feed storage. Several feeding units for lactating cows and centrally managed delivery rooms, perinatal cowshed, calf shed, developmental cowshed, bred cowshed, dry cowshed, silage facilities, and roughage storage and processing facilities are set up in pasture production areas.

③. Milking area:
Milking hall and raw milk cooling and storage facilities are set up in the milking area. There are unified milking operation norms and special milking personnel.

④. Isolation area:
Installation of the sick cowshed and veterinary room in isolation area can meet the needs of diagnosis, treatment, and isolation of sick cows.

⑤. Fecal and urine treatment area:
Fecal and urine treatment area should have the function of high temperature composting and sewage treatment. When conditions permit, solid-liquid separation system and biogas treatment facilities for fecal and urine should be established.

. Ways to achieve high benefits in dairy cattle breeding

1. To select good quality dairy cows, which are the basis of production, and the best is high-yielding dairy cows.

In the process of selecting dairy cows, it is necessary to judge which kind of dairy cows are more productive and more suitable for farmers to breed. The selection of dairy cows is mainly from the appearance, and choose the well-built to ensure effective growth and weight gain in the growth process. And in the selection process, we should pay attention to the quality of the cow's body and avoid the cows with poor resistance. Diseases continue to erode dairy cows, making the whole process of farming have to consume a lot of drug costs and raising the cost of farming. And when purchasing dairy cows, we should also consider its lactation ability, to see if its breasts are full. Only cows with healthy breasts can be called good quality dairy cows so that farmers can squeeze fresh milk. Therefore, in the selection process of dairy cows, we must carry out reasonable control and mastery. Select high-yielding cows to improve the quality of milk and economic efficiency.

2. We must grasp the feeding technology.

After the selection of dairy bread, farmers should carry out effective feeding. Only if farmers master the feeding technology can they improve the efficiency of dairy production. If feeding management can not keep up, even if there are good quality dairy cows, it can not achieve the expected economic benefits. In daily management, on the one hand, we should take into account the growth environment of dairy cows, but also pay attention to the choice of feed and the appropriate exercise of dairy cows in daily life. The setting of the environment mainly refers to the living environment of dairy cows. Farmers must ensure that the cowshed has good light and ventilation, and provide a clean and healthy growing environment for dairy cows. Also, farmers must pay attention to cleaning the cowshed in time and clean up their excrement. Feeds should be fed with green feed, supplemented by roughage and concentrate. It should also be noted that a few additive elements can effectively meet the nutritional requirements of cow growth. In terms of drinking water, do not let cows drink ice water or dirty water, which can easily cause diseases, such as diarrhea.

How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
How to scientifically and reasonably breed dairy cows?
3. Milking must be hygienic.

Because milk is directly processed, or directly drinkable products, farmers must ensure the cleanliness and hygiene of milk. Milking is also an important work in the feeding process of dairy cows. It is necessary to clean the breasts of dairy cows and then do milking work. At the end of milking, the lid of the barrel must be covered in time to avoid impurities and unsanitary substances entering the milk and contaminating the milk. After milking, as soon as possible to carry out sales,and put it into the purchasing station and process it to a certain extent. If cow mammary inflammation occurs, during the use of drugs, milk can not be drunk directly because there will be some residual drugs, affecting the quality of milk. Drinking directly may cause some harm to the human body.

4. In the feeding process, we must step by step, and ensure that the feeding manpower is sufficient, and must be strong labor.

At the beginning of raising dairy cows, the scale should not be too large because of the cost and the economic risk are higher. In the process of dairy farming, we can start from a small scale, accumulate experience, and gradually expand. Large-scale feeding from the very beginning often results in the shortage of labor force and experience, which makes the management of dairy cows imperfect and difficult to obtain high economic benefits.

5. The sale of dairy cows must be honest.

If we want to ensure that cow milk can have a stable sales route, we must ensure the hygiene and quality of fresh milk and avoid adulteration, counterfeiting, and other issues. To improve their income, some farmers add some cold water to the milk, which will reduce the quality of milk. And over time, it will affect the sale of milk, and customers no longer buy milk on this farm. The sales route blocked, it may lead to farm bankruptcy.

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