Over the past few decades, changes in management, nutrition facts, and genetics have changed the types of important diseases that people used to think of as dairy cows. More and more people have come to realize the importance of sub-health status without obvious symptoms of disease, mainly including the occurrence of metabolic diseases and production-related diseases affecting productivity, as well as some management problems, such as acid ketosis and fatty liver symptoms, hoof's disease, hypocalcemia/milk fever, abdominal ectopia and reproductive failure and so on.
Although the types of infectious diseases have declined, infectious diseases are an important problem and become more prominent as the density of farming increases. Some data from the National Animal Health Surveillance System cow'96 show that infectious diseases are still a major concern. The incidence of mastitis, respiratory diseases, lameness, and vomit and diarrhea were 13.4%, 2.5%, 10%, and 3.4% respectively. Of these, 85% of cow deaths are caused by diarrhea and respiratory diseases.
1. Health of Dairy Cows
Since people have gradually realized that the role of nutrition and daily management are the primary factors affecting animal health, they have neglected the importance of many infectious factors. With the development of vaccines, diseases are easier to prevent, while the development of antibiotics makes the incidence of diseases increases suddenly, and the death of diseases of unknown causes is rapid. Rapid spread, etc. Because no matter how perfect the daily management measures are, the occurrence of diseases is inevitable. Although we can manage animals in groups, diseases are ultimately manifested in individual animals. Moreover, in a complex production system, some problems will eventually arise.
There will certainly be many responses to these situations, but the best way may be the easiest to overlook, that is, to understand the many diseases we need to consider and the different factors contributing to the occurrence of these diseases, to understand the different ways to deal with these problems, and to find out that there are no ready-made measures for all situations. This requires the strengthening of routine and systematic diagnostic methods.
2. Disease control
The disease is only one aspect that affects the dairy industry. It should also consider the management of nutritional factors, poisoning, feeding management and facilities, which will affect the occurrence of disease. For example, viral diseases can overcome immune protection. Some diseases are insensitive to therapeutic measures. Endemic diseases or chronic diseases are prone to a sustained abundant harvest of diseases due to the presence of pathogen carriers.
Veterinary consultation and management inputs are essential for the control of infectious diseases. A biosafety measure must aim at a specific problem and purpose. The first step in developing biosafety measures is to identify some noteworthy diseases for the farm. The quarantine can limit the introduction of pathogenic factors causing acute diseases, but it can not effectively prevent the introduction of most important infectious diseases. The corresponding biosafety measures should also be formulated according to the mode of transmission of diseases, the time of discharge of infectious pathogens, the existence of asymptomatic carriers and the problems of detection methods.
Well-designed biosafety measures are very important for reducing the spread of infectious diseases. The following issues should be considered: newly introduced dairy cattle and quarantine, pre-purchase immunization and testing, pre-purchase cattle herds, minimizing feed and environment, controlling flies and other insects, and reducing Less contact with other species of animals.
3. Accurate diagnosis
General management measures can control the spread of most infectious diseases, and special measures should be taken for specific diseases. In some cases, although strict management measures have been implemented, some diseases can not be avoided. It is precise because of these unexpected factors that lead to huge economic losses. The best management measure for disease control timely and accurate diagnosis. Routine and systematic autopsy of each dead cow is of great significance for the diagnosis of disease occurrence. However, an autopsy is not initiated until the problem is more obvious. Not desirable. The best way is to autopsy dead cattle. Cattle that have recently been infected with the disease and has the same symptoms should be selected for autopsy.
The health of cattle is an important issue in the cattle industry, which affects milk quality. There are many causes and manifestations of cow diseases. According to the specific situation of dairy farms, each dairy farm sometimes faces similar problems, but usually, the situation between farms is different. The best way to control diseases is the combination of the following two aspects: first, the management measures for controlling important diseases, and second, the diagnosis and monitoring of the epidemic situation at any time to constantly change the management measures. Autopsy and sampling are key joints in disease surveillance.