Exercise 1-2 hours a day to improve blood circulation, exercise limbs strength and wear hoof nails.
(2) Hoofs should be trimmed.
Because of the characteristics of dairy cows themselves and the neglect of human, the movement of dairy cows is reduced and the wear of hoof nails is very small. If not trimmed, the long hoof nails will gradually cause hoof rolling after 3 or 4 births, which makes it difficult for the light one to walk and the heavy can't stand and are often forced to be eliminated in their prime. It's not worth the loss, because this work has no technology, anyone can do it, so we must insist on hoof repair.
l. If not trimmed, the long hoof nails will gradually cause hoof rolling after 3 or 4 births, which makes it difficult for the light one to walk and the heavy can't stand and are often forced to be eliminated in their prime. It's not worth the loss, because this work has no technology, anyone can do it, so we must insist on hoof repair.
It is an important work for daily health care of dairy cows to brush the whole body of them with a brush every day after going to the trough. Its benefits are self-evident. Everyone knows it without further elaboration.
(4) The farm should be dry.
Calves are calves from birth to 6 months of age. The correctness of calf feeding and management has an extremely important impact on the adult size of dairy cows, the ability to feed roughage, and the milk production and reproductive performance after adulthood. Therefore, it is very important to strengthen the feeding and management of calves.
Feeding at birth (calves within 7-10 days of birth are called at birth)
After calves are born, they should eat colostrum as soon as possible (the milk secreted by cows within 5 days after birth is called colostrum). It is usually best to eat colostrum within half an hour after birth. Feeding method: Dip milk in hand to induce cows to eat colostrum in the barrel.
If the calver dies or the colostrum can not be used due to illness, the colostrum produced by other cows can be fed. If there is no colostrum, artificial milk can be used instead. Colostrum is usually fed three times a day. The amount of colostrum drunk for the first time was 1/8-1/6 of calf weight and then increased by 0.5-1.0 kg per day until the fifth day to 8-9 kg.
The feeding temperature should be maintained at 35-38℃. Drink warm boiled water at 35-38 ℃ for 1-2 hours after each breastfeeding.
In the early stage of lactation, calves are best fed their mothers' regular milk. Starting from 10 to 15 days, they can be fed warm milk instead of breast milk. Attention should be paid to the change from colostrum, normal milk to warm milk gradually to avoid indigestion.
The lactation period is usually 3-6 months. The calves are weaned at the age of 6 months and consume 300-400 kg of milk during the whole period.
Early feeding and weaning
(1) Hay: calves are trained to eat hay from 7 to 10 days after birth. Place high-quality hay on calf trough or straw shelf for free feeding and chewing.
(2) Concentrate: calves are trained to eat concentrate 15-20 days after birth. At the beginning of feeding, the concentrate can be ground into a fine powder and mixed with mineral feed such as salt and bone meal. The calf's mouth and nose can be rubbed with the mixture to teach it to lick.
Initially, 10-20 grams of dry powder was fed every day, which could be increased to 80-100 grams in a few days. After adapting for some time, the mixed "dry and wet material" is fed again, that is, the dry powder is mixed with warm water to wet, which can improve palatability and increase the intake, but the sour and rotten feed must not be fed to prevent diarrhea.
The amount of dry and wet materials increased with age. 250-300 grams could be fed in one month and 500 grams in two months.
(3) Juicy feed: Starting from 20 days after birth, the mixed concentrate can be added with chopped carrot and other juicy feed to promote the development of digestive organs.
(4) Silage: from the age of 2 months, it is fed 100-150 grams a day at first, 1.5-2 kg at the age of 3 months, and 4-5 kg at the age of 4-6 months.
(5) Drinking water: The water content in milk can not meet the needs of normal metabolism, so calves must be trained to drink water as soon as possible, and the water temperature should not be lower than 15 ℃.
Generally, calves fed more than 1-1.5 kg daily can be weaned early. Calves born in the first half of the year can be weaned for about 45 days and those born in the second half can be weaned for about 60 days.
The management of calf
(1) After the calf is born, wipe the mucus from mouth, nose and body surface with dry cloth immediately. Do not let cows lick calves to avoid infectious diseases. Weighing the birth weight, if there is false death, the calf should be immediately lifted both hind limbs, patted on its back, poured out its throat amniotic fluid or mucus, and then artificial respiration.
(2) Feeding: Timing, temperature, quantity and the fixed breeder should be done. Before feeding, they should use hot water to soak and disinfect their utensils. After feeding, they should wipe off the residual milk near the mouth of the calf with a dry towel.
(3) The cowshed should be regularly disinfected and often covered with a soft and dry mattress. It should be cold-proof in winter and heat-proof in summer. Keep the cowshed ventilated as much as possible, sun and exercise more, and brush the calfskin every day.