At present, in the process of dairy cattle raising and production, the occurrence of hoof leaf inflammation is relatively common, and in the dairy herd mainly cows and cow babies with lower parity are more prevalent, most of them are sporadic, but occasional mass outbreaks occur in clinic. In the actual clinical feeding process of dairy cattle farmers, fewer cattle with hoofed leaf disease die, but there are still a lot of infected cows, sick cows lie on the ground for a long time, and can not stand, milk production and health will be affected to varying degrees. In actual production, prevention and control measures should be strengthened to reduce the incidence of the disease, to improve the production performance and economic benefits of dairy cows.
1. Causes of disease
In the clinic, there are many factors that cause the occurrence of hoof leaf disease in dairy cows, not just one, but they are generally related to the influence of numerous histamine-like substances produced in the body to varying degrees, because histamine-like substances have certain effects on the normal regulatory function of vasomotor nerves, leading to the disorder of blood distribution. The acute serous inflammation of hoof dermis was caused by dilatation, congestion, permeability enhancement and exudation of peripheral blood vessels. The cows suffered severe pain and showed obvious lameness. In production, there are three common types: overeating hoof leaf disease, weight-bearing hoof leaf disease, and puerperal hoof leaf disease.
Overfeeding hoof leaf disease: mainly because the feed intake of dairy cows is too simple, sudden change or excessive intake of high-energy feed can cause disease. If the proportion of protein concentration in the feed is large or excessive intake of fermentable feed, the dairy cows lack exercise in the feeding process, the digestive function system of dairy cows is very strong. Obstacles easily occur, resulting in numerous lactic acid and histamine-like substances in the body, which eventually leads to severe pain in cows.
Load-bearing hoof leaf disease: mainly because cows lie up for a long time, stand on hard cow beds, experienced long-distance transport, or because one limb disease led to excessive weight-bearing conditions in other limbs, or because the ground of cow pens is wet and not smooth, resulting in limbs due to a long time. The stress is uneven, and the dermis of the hoof is compressed for a long time, which leads to local blood circulation disorders and disease manifestations.
Puerperal hoof leaf inflammation: Most cows show symptoms of illness within one week after delivery. Edema occurs during delivery, and the resistance of the dermis of the hoof decreases, resulting in increased exudates and disease. In addition to the factors described above, if cows are infected with some other diseases, they are also very vulnerable to secondary hoof leaf inflammation.
2. Clinical symptoms
Acute type cattle in clinical production can be seen in its body temperature significantly increased, even up to 39-40 degrees C, hypertonia, pulse and respiratory increase, loss of appetite, sweating, swelling and fever of hoof crown, footwall percussion pain, milk decline and so on.
Chronic cattle are generally caused by other diseases secondary to acute cattle. The general symptoms of cattle with chronic cattle are mild, with deformed hooves, flexion of toe front, swelling of joints, arch back, lack of movement or inadequate movement. The toe tips are raised, the hoof wheels extend backward and downward and separate from each other. The gait is characterized by a uniquely strong and restrained gait, which is thin.
In cattle breeding, dairy farmers should strengthen the feeding and management measures of dairy herds. We should strictly control the supply of concentrate feed to avoid the overnutrition of cows. At the same time, we should ensure the supply of high-quality hay for dairy cows, and the fiber content in feed should exceed 18%. The cattle rancher should try best to ensure that dairy cows feed and feed. The nutrition of the material is in balance. The feed should be stable to avoid sudden changes and adverse effects on dairy cows. Especially when increasing dietary protein and carbohydrate content, there should be a transition and gradual increase.
Usually, there will be a transition time of 1014 days to ensure that the rumen environment maintains an appropriate period of adaptation to maintain the rumen environment. A relatively stable state avoids the occurrence of digestive tract diseases in dairy cows. In the daily management process, feeders should try their best to ensure that the feed is fresh and choose suitable storage methods. If the feed is mildewed and deteriorated, they must not be able to feed the dairy cows. At the same time, they do not support the mildew treatment of the feed before feeding the dairy cows.
They should eliminate mildew and deterioration as far as possible. In the process of raising dairy cows, breeders try their best to create a suitable enclosure environment for the survival of dairy cows, to ensure that the breeding grounds are clean and hygienic, and the sports fields of dairy cows should be soft and smooth, suitable for dairy cows to exercise properly. In daily clinical production, we should not only pay attention to the health care of dairy cows'hooves, but also regularly spray bath hooves with 4% copper sulfate solution, and require that the breeders should insist on the Hoove repair treatment for the whole group of dairy cows on time every year when feeding them. If cows are about to undergo long-distance transportation, hay and soil should be padded under their hooves to ensure that the cows'hooves can bear even weight.
At present, in the actual production process, diseased cattle usually have only mild symptoms or no symptoms of the systemic disease at all. Milk production of the diseased female cows is slightly affected. Feeders often delay the best treatment period of hoof leaf disease because of ignoring the diseased cattle, which will eventually lead to a less significant therapeutic effect. This is the case. In the actual clinical production, the treatment principle for cows with hoof leaf inflammation is to eliminate the cause of disease, relieve pain, prevent hoof bone transposition and promote the regeneration of keratin.