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How to prevent ruminal acidosis in dairy cows?

Posted on: December 5, 2019, by Eleanor

Ruminal acidosis is common in dairy cows fed with numerous concentrates. These carbohydrate-rich concentrates ferment abnormally in the rumen of dairy cows, which reduces the activity of microbial flora in the rumen, resulting in excessive lactic acid being absorbed into the blood, thus causing acidosis. The clinical symptoms were acute anterior gastric flaccidity, dehydration, an obvious decrease of rumen pH value, elevated plasma CO2 concentration and acidity of feces and urine. It mainly harms high-yield dairy cows, especially those in perinatal and lactation periods. Here is the specific knowledge: the clinical symptoms of rumen acidosis in dairy cattle, prevention and treatment methods, and prevention of rumen acidosis in dairy cows.

Ruminal acidosis is common in dairy cows fed with a large number of concentrates.
Ruminal acidosis is common in dairy cows fed with a large number of concentrates.

1. Clinical symptoms

The acute cases were 4~8h after the excessive intake of dairy cows (grains, high acid silage, etc.). The sick cows were depressed, supine, followed by vomit and diarrhea, rapidly sunken, rapidly dehydrated, and the individual cows showed high excitement. They made loud calls, groans, mouth opening, nystagmus, nostril bleeding, red foam, and 3~5h He died soon.

Poisoning usually occurs in dairy cows after childbirth, manifested as irregular fur, muscle tremor, diarrhea feces first water sample, then yellow-brown, dark-black mucus sample (then dried and then asphalt-like). The sick cows were unable to lie on the ground. Their body temperature did not change significantly, and some of them decreased slightly. Groaning, excitement, some breathing faster, some breathing weaker. The long course of the disease is manifested by flaccid rumen, loss of appetite, accompanied by hoof leaf inflammation, strong gait, and difficulty in standing. The diseased cattle suffer from severe dehydration, tight skin, sunken eyeballs, blood concentration and reduced urine volume, which may eventually be accompanied by hoofs and rumen inflammation.

During dairy farming, overfeeding pigs with grain feed had a slow onset and mild symptoms. Overfeeding crushed concentrate and batter had a rapid onset. When cattle drink water after eating grain, the grain ferments quickly in the rumen, produces acid and produces gas, which destroys the rumen environment. At the beginning of the disease, appetite was absent, rumination and belching were reduced or stopped.

When the rumen was full, the cattle were agitated and restless. They sometimes got up, kicked abdomen with a hind hoof, dry nose, purple conjunctiva, and sunken eye socket. The rumen was drummed and pressed like hard dough. The organic acid in rumen rises sharply. After absorption, the affected cattle show unstable gait, accelerated heart rate, shallow and fast breathing, and increased body temperature.

When the pH value of rumen drops below 6.0, cattle often lie down, moan their molars, stop peristalsis in the rumen, and the contents of the rumen are mostly pasty; purple-red nose and eye rims, blood concentration, sunken eyeballs, sticky mouth, dark red, head and neck tilted to one side or head backward, like postpartum paralysis; some of them are blind, feces stopped, and feces are few. Urine or anuria; some cattle excrete a small amount of dilute dung with mucus and undigested feed particles, which smells sour and stinky.

2. Treatment

Stop rumen fermentation and reduce acidosis. First, the stomach is guided and lavaged. The 2.0-2.5 cm rubber tube is inserted into the rumen through the mouth, and the liquid content is discharged. Then the stomach is fully lavaged and guided with 50 kg of 1% sodium chloride solution until the rumen juice is clear or alkaline by the test paper. Correct body fluid pH value, replenish alkali storage, alleviate acidosis with 5% sodium bicarbonate 1.0 ~ 1.5L, twice a day intravenous injection, severe cases can be used for 2 days.

Later, it will be decided by the situation or by the change of blood carbon dioxide binding capacity. Promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and restore digestive function system, and prevent gastrointestinal tract infection. When the condition is alleviated, it can be used with gastric stimulants, stomach-strengthening drugs, and gastrointestinal anti-inflammatory drugs.

3. Preventive measure

Scientific feeding, rational supply of concentrate, 1%~2% baking soda and 0.5% magnesium oxide can be added to the diet. When the intake of dairy cows drops rapidly, the pH value of urine, ketone body and digestive tract diseases should be detected in time. First, we need to control the nutritional facts during the dry milk period. The nutritional level of dairy cows in the dry milk period should not be too high. It is forbidden to adopt the method of increasing concentrate to achieve the purpose of fattening and lactation. Concentrate feeding should not exceed 4 kg per day, at the same time, a variety of feed should be rationally allocated to prevent the feeding of simple and inferior concentrates.

Secondly, feeding management should be strengthened and feed should be rationally allocated. Rather than simply feeding high-priced fermentable carbohydrate feed and high acidity silage and dregs, it should be guaranteed to supply cows with 4-5 kg of hay every day, and adequate drinking water and proper exercise. Also, the management of concentrate stacking and storage should be strengthened to prevent cows from stealing concentrate. 2% sodium bicarbonate and 0.9% magnesium oxide can be added to the diet to promote the normal digestive function of the rumen and prevent acidosis.

Ruminal acidosis of dairy female cows often occurs after calving. Because of the excessive feed, the cows ferment and produce acid in the rumen, resulting in acidosis. Therefore, to prevent this disease, we should pay attention to the fact that dairy cows can not be fed too much concentrate or a large amount of silage during the postpartum recovery period. It is better to feed a certain amount of dry yeast or sodium bicarbonate tablets every day to control the pH value in the rumen.

The key to the treatment of this disease is to adjust the pH value of body fluids. It is found that the sick cattle must be transfused as early as possible to alleviate acidosis, and at the same time to strengthen the heart and rehydration so that the cattle can recover as soon as possible. The prevention of this disease mainly lies in strengthening the feeding management. The proportion of daily amount and nutrition should be reasonable, the feed should be piled up in places where cattle are not easy to reach, and the cattle should be kept in strict captivity to prevent cattle from running around and stealing vegetables or crops.

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