In the process of dairy cattle breeding, it is easy to catch all kinds of diseases without paying attention to them. Dairy cattle infected with diseases will not only affect milk production but also may infect other dairy cattle to a certain extent, resulting in numerous sick or dead cows, which is a great economic loss for the cattle breeders. Besides, it may also be for drinking. People with sick cow milk cause physical harm, so when raising cows, breeders should pay special attention to the prevention of cow diseases and how to minimize the harm when the disease occurs. Here are some common diseases and preventive measures in the process of dairy cattle breeding.
1. Foot diseases
Dairy cow's foot diseases are divided into foot rot disease, interdigital dermatitis, hoof disease and so on.
The disease is caused by a mixture of Necrobacterium necrosis and Pseudomonas melanogenesis. Another is Plivobacterium. Symmetrical swelling occurs when the disease occurs and cows limp. The sudden onset of the disease is acute, accompanied by local pain, obvious waveform, limited joint activity, often forming one or more suppurative fistulas.
Treatment: Intramuscular injection of ceftiofur sodium or intramuscular injection of 50 ml is easy, high body temperature patients with mental retardation with flunixin meglumine treatment. In addition to injecting drugs, it should be checked whether there is any obvious pain in the foot of the diseased cattle. If the diseased cattle have obvious pain when pressing and the corners of the foot become soft and discolored, the diseased cattle should be repaired at this time.
Attention should be paid when repairing hoofs: first, disinfect the hoofs with 5% iodine tincture, then use a shoe-digging knife to dig out the soft and discolored areas of the hoofs. Attention should be paid to the fact that the shoe-digging knife is also disinfected. When cut to the dermis of cow's hooves, the odor, and purulent exudates can be discharged, and then washed with hydrogen peroxide saline oxytetracycline powder pure fish fat bandage is bandaged.
If there is a pyogenic focus, it should be washed, remove necrotic tissue and concentrated juice, tamponade with Oxytetracycline powder and defatted cotton in the pyogenic cavity, and change medicine once every two days. At the same time, 4 million units of penicillin sodium, 30-40 ml of 0.5% procaine hydrochloride and 3-4 points above the swelling part were injected intramuscularly once a day for 5 days.
The main cause of the disease is that the environment is too humid. It can be judged by painless decay or ulcer of the skin between the toes. But toe Mesothelitis is different from foot rot disease, which can cause skin proliferation, toe fibroma, and varying degrees of corrosion can cause varying degrees of damage. When the heel is broken and the ampullary skin of the heel is excessively proliferated, toe lameness can increase the weight-bearing pressure of the heel. Typically, symmetrical interdigital dermatitis occurs in both limbs. Dairy cows feel swelling and pain at the time of onset.
Treatment: The first step is to check the cows, clean the whole hooves with clean water or 0.1% disinfectant, and trim the excessive growth of cuticle and pus between toes. Then disinfect the toes with 5% iodine tincture, and apply a piece of defatted asbestos and fish store grease to the toes. Copper sulfate is applied to the toes, and the bandages are wrapped up. After a week, the bandages are removed. When dealing with heel fracture, the skin flaps on the cuticle surface should be removed, and the closed part should be exposed to air.
Dairy cows show pain during onset, forming tongue-shaped protuberance between two toes, increasing and thickening. The surface of the hoof of cows is ulcerated by ground friction, and it will cause serious lameness.
Treatment: Potassium permanganate can be used to corrode the hyperplasia, or 5% iodine tincture can be used to disinfect, and then removed with a scalpel. The wound surface can be covered with turpentine, foot tonic ointment or pure fish stone defatted cotton hoof bandage, and the bandage can be removed after a week.
Dairy cow mastitis is especially harmful to dairy farming. When the diseased cow is serious, it will seriously affect milk production or stop milk production. Moreover, drinking milk produced by cows suffering from mastitis may cause food poisoning to human beings, which will cause great economic losses to the dairy farmers.
Cause of disease:
Dairy cow mastitis is an infectious disease, cowshed or combed temperature is too high or too low may cause the disease because mastitis will spread between cows or cowshed, so cowshed ventilation is also one of the causes of the disease. Also, if the cowshed is not clean for a long time, there are excrement residues or milk leaking on the ground during milking, it may cause bacterial breeding, hygienic conditions are not up to standard, but also cause mosquito bites on dairy cows, increasing the probability of virus transmission.
The incidence of cow mastitis is very high. According to the data from the International Dairy Federation, 50% of cows suffer from subclinical mastitis. The quality of cow's milk decreases, the content of lactose decreases, the rate of milk fat decreases, and the taste of dairy deteriorates. At the same time, because mastitis is an infectious disease, if the diseased cows are not found in time, there is a great possibility of causing infection to other dairy cows in the farm, coupled with the cost of medical treatment for diseased cows, which is a great loss to farmers.
Prevention and treatment:
Farmers should observe cows in a cowshed in time. If cows with suspected mastitis are found, they should be treated by isolation in time, which can effectively reduce the speed of disease transmission. Isolated dairy cows should be placed in ventilated cowhouses with good environmental conditions, and hygienic conditions can effectively treat mastitis. For farmers, the best situation should be no disease, so the prevention of mastitis is also very important.
Standardized Milking Parlour work. When milking cows, the staff must disinfect their hands, and the milking posture must be correct. If milking is done by machine, the machine should also be disinfected, and the position of the milking machine must be correct. To increase the milk production of cows, some breeders will beat hormones on cows. This is irrational behavior. Milk production of cows should follow their constitution. Forced increase of milk production will damage the breasts of cows, and in serious cases may lead to the cessation of production.
For the diseased cows, we should also ensure that their drinking water is adequate and clean. The intake of water can make the cows discharge toxins from their bodies. The insufficient supply of water will seriously affect their digestion of food, resulting in the inability of nutrition facts to be well absorbed by the body, thus further affecting their growth and development. At the same time, when milking cows, farmers should pay attention to milk every day, to ensure that the cows form a good biological clock for milking. At the same time, after milking, the cowshed should be cleaned. If there is residual milk on the ground, it should be cleaned and kept clean and tidy.
Dairy cow disease is the most headache for cattle farmers, but it should be noted that, compared with the treatment of disease, the more important thing is to do a good job of disease prevention, solve the problem from the root causes, while saving drug expenses, it can also reduce the pain of cow disease.