Dairy cow blood is a common clinical symptom caused by many factors in dairy cow feeding. It is indicated that there is bleeding in the digestive tract. Secondary anemia, nutritional absorption barrier, and low immunity may affect milk production, endanger health, increase feeding costs and reduce breeding benefits. Serious blood can directly cause the death of dairy cows. At the present stage, the scale of dairy farming in China has been continuously increasing. Whether the main symptoms of bloody stool can be taken as a starting point, comprehensive analysis, as soon as possible to find out the cause of disease, scientific prevention, and control, for the pasture veterinarian is particularly important.
Common hematochezia-predominant diseases in dairy cows include infectious diseases, such as Leukemia, salmonellosis, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia, Campylobacter Jejuni, parasitic diseases, such as coccidiosis, common diseases, such as poisoning diseases (including potato poisoning, mycotoxin poisoning, arsenic poisoning, etc.) and true gastric ulcer disease
Categories of Bovine Hematochezia Diseases
Bovine salmonellosis is mainly caused by Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Dublin. The source of infection is diseased cattle and infected dairy cattle. It is often transmitted through the fecal-oral route, that is, fecal contaminated feed or drinking water. After being eaten, it infects the posterior segment of the small intestine, cecum, and colon through the digestive tract. The mucosal membrane is damaged, resulting in rupture of intestinal wall blood vessels and poor absorption. Fresh blood or blood clots are often mixed in the feces. In addition to digestive tract symptoms, some adult pregnant female cows may suffer from abortion. It should be noted that long-distance transportation, antibiotic treatment or cold stress irritation can easily lead to intestinal dysbacteriosis and intestinal peristalsis, which is prone to the occurrence of this disease.
Intestinal toxemia is caused by Clostridium perfringens and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. In the clinic, intestinal diseases can be caused by A, B, C, and D types, especially by C-type Clostridium perfringens. Eating a large amount of carbohydrate or high protein diet as it's inducing factor can cause the outbreak of C-type bacteria and the occurrence of "superinfection" in the intestine. It can also produce numerous lethal beta toxins, and small doses of beta toxins can cause necrosis of intestinal epithelial cells, so when toxins enter the deep intestinal wall, they can cause extensive necrosis of submucosa and intestinal bleeding. Adult cattle mostly have no visible clinical symptoms, calves can see obvious blood stool when onset.
3. Campylobacter Jejuni disease of cattle
The pathogen of Campylobacter Jejuni disease is Gram-negative bacilli that bend to spiral shape, formerly known as Vibrio Jejuni. The bacteria have a mucosal affinity and are affected by different factors and strains. The colonization sites of the bacteria cells are different in the intestine. Most of them are colonized in the small intestine and colon and then produce a cholera enterotoxin, which causes bovine enterocolitis. Digestive tract infections occur mostly in winter, and the epidemic is rapid. Cattle of all ages can be infected, and most of them are endemic. In addition to feces mixed with blood, clinical symptoms associated with pseudomembranous enteritis.
There are 11 kinds of bovine coccidiosis reported in domestic literature. Eimeria Qiu and Eimeria Bovis are common species of bovine coccidiosis in China. Infected by bovine ingestion of sporulated oocysts. Spores escape into the epithelial cells of parasitic sites in the intestinal tract and reproduce repeatedly asexually to produce merozoites. Merozoites develop to a certain stage to form large and small gametophytes.
Large and small gametophytes combine to form oocysts and discharge out of the body. Sporogenic reproduction is carried out under suitable external conditions to form sporozoites oocysts. Coccidia mainly parasitic in the large intestine and small intestine. After infection, it destroys intestinal villi. There is a lot of mucus and blood in the feces. The feces discharged with the development of the disease are almost black feces with whole blood. There is a foul odor. Without early effective treatment, cows usually end up dead.
1. True gastric ulcer
As a common disease, all factors that can cause a genuine gastric ulcer can cause clinically visible blood and stool symptoms. These factors mainly include primary factors, such as improper feeding management, excessive concentrate, excessive feeding of crude fibers or strong stimulating feeds, and some stress factors. Secondary diseases, such as genuine gastritis, genuine gastric metastasis, foot-and-mouth disease, blister disease, infectious rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea mucosal disease, and Haemonchus Contortus, can cause congestion, damage, erosion, and ulcer of the genuine gastric mucosa. Mild hemorrhagic ulcer, only intermittent excretion of a small amount of bloody stool, severe hemorrhagic gastric ulcer, excretion of the stool was pine-slippery black blood stool.
2. Toxic diseases
In the course of some poisoning diseases, clinical symptoms of hematochezia will appear, such as potato poisoning, cottonseed meal poisoning, mycotoxin poisoning (such as the poisoning of moldy forage grass), arsenic poisoning, etc. The causes of poisoning are different, and the mechanism of gastrointestinal bleeding is also different.
Comprehensive differential diagnosis
Bovine salmonellosis, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia, Campylobacter Jejuni, and coccidiosis can be used as a preliminary diagnostic basis according to clinical symptoms and pathological changes. Laboratory pathogen isolation and identification are needed to confirm the diagnosis. True gastric ulcer and toxic diseases should be diagnosed comprehensively according to the history and clinical symptoms.
The routine treatment of hematochezia cattle mainly uses cardiotonic agents, rehydration reagents, antibiotics, and hemostatic drugs. Calcium preparations were intravenously injected into cattle with low body temperature, Yunnan Baiyao and Baitouwengsan were orally administered to cattle with high blood feces, and enema was used to treat cattle with colon and rectal hemorrhage. The causes were analyzed in combination with other symptoms. After a comprehensive evaluation, treatment was carried out, and the body temperature, heart rate, and respiration were restored to normal as treatment.
The evaluation index of Yue Goal. The most effective treatment methods for bovine salmonellosis, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia and Campylobacter Jejuni disease are an aseptic collection of feces in rectum or tissue materials of dead cattle, identification of the corresponding pathogens, drug sensitivity test and screening of targeted drugs.
However, it is not possible to obtain effective antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria to achieve a good cure. Sometimes antibiotics are treated only by resisting pathogenic bacteria in the body and reducing the number of bacteria excreted into the surrounding environment. In the treatment of bovine salmonellosis, sensitive antibiotics should be applied as early as possible according to the results of the drug sensitivity test, which is the key to cure the disease.
However, the enterotoxemia of Clostridium perfringens in adult cattle mostly occurs acutely and dies in a short time. The possibility of treatment for this disease is small. If specific pathogens and toxins are identified, the corresponding toxoids can be used for immunization. Campylobacter Jejuni disease of cattle is often a chronic process. Cattle with severe diarrhea or dysentery can recover completely after 7 to 14 days of treatment.
Toltrazuril, sulfamethoxazole, and Sulfaquinoline are commonly used in the treatment of bovine coccidiosis. Monensin can be used as a preventive drug and is often added to calves'diets. In the treatment of genuine gastric ulcer, oral penicillin and Cimetidine Tablets are usually used. The effect is obvious and effective, and feeding management is strengthened. For the treatment of hematochezia caused by toxic diseases, the first thing is to find out the cause of poisoning, to treat it pertinently, and to cooperate with the routine treatment of digestive tract hemorrhage.