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Main Points of Dairy Cow Feeding

Posted on: December 5, 2019, by Victoria

Dairy cow milk production period refers to the period from delivery to dry milk, which is generally 305 days. It is generally divided into early lactation, peak lactation, mid-lactation, and late lactation.

Dairy Cow Feeding
Dairy Cow Feeding

I. Suggestions of Feeding in Different Stages
1. Early lactation--21 days after delivery.
The feeding points are to prepare for postpartum recovery, epidemic prevention, and control and milk production peak. After delivery, cows should drink warm bran brown sugar water in time, do a good job of milking and uterine examination, disinfection or administration; when transfer to the daily diet, should increase 0.25 kg concentrate feed per head per day and increase 1 kg concentrate feed per 3 kg milk to determine the concentrate feed consumption, which in order to prepare for high yield.

2. The peak lactation period lasts from 21 to 100 days after delivery. 
Feeding points provide a nutritious diet. Provide high-quality forage, vitamin supplement, and rumen buffer. Attention should be paid to the control of fatness in dairy cows. To prolong feeding time and increase dry matter intake. Dry matter intake should account for more than 3.5% of weight, 16%~18% of crude protein level, 0.7% of calcium and  0.45% of phosphorus. Do a good job of postpartum estrus detection and timely mating.

3. The mid-lactation period lasts from 101 to 200 days after delivery. 
Control dietary nutrient concentration and prolong milk production peak period. Reduce dietary energy and protein content appropriately and increase green forage and roughage. Milk production decrease, concentrate feed is not eager to reduce, to improve lactation. The dry matter intake reached 3.0% of weight, 13% of crude protein, 0.45% of calcium and 0.35% of phosphorus, and the ratio of concentrate to roughage gradually changed to 40:60.

Control dietary nutrient concentration and prolong milk production peak period. Reduce dietary energy and protein content appropriately and increase green forage and roughage. Milk production decrease, concentrate feed is not eager to reduce, to improve lactation. The dry matter intake reached 3.0% of weight, 13% of crude protein, 0.45% of calcium and 0.35% of phosphorus, and the ratio of concentrate to roughage gradually changed to 40:60.

Dairy Cow Feeding
Dairy Cow Feeding

4.Late lactation--201 days after delivery to stop milking. 
The main points of feeding are to reduce dietary nutrient concentration, prevent cows from over fattening and prevent abortion. Prepare for dry milk. The proportion of concentrate to roughage was changed to 30:70 by increasing the feed of roughage and reducing the feed of concentrate.

II. Key Points of Routine Feeding
1. Grasp the feeding principle.
According to the principles of "regular and quantitative, less and frequent feeding" and "first roughage, then concentrate, and first feeding and then drinking", the number of feeding is consistent with the number of milking. The order of feeding was grass or silage-concentrate-mineral and salt-hay. Diversify their diet as much as possible. Based on hay and green fodder. The reasonable proportion of hay, green feed, and silage straw is 2%, 57%, and 28%.

2. Ensure adequate drinking water. 
Continuous water supply, low water temperature in summer and drink clean well water. Drinking water with ice should be avoided as much as possible in winter. The average daily water requirement is 50~70 liters per head, 120 liters per day for high-yielding cattle, and 2.5~4 liters per kilogram of milk in spring and autumn.

Dairy Cow Feeding
Dairy Cow Feeding

3. Do a good job of breast health care.
During milking cows, the nerve endings in the nipple position are stimulated slightly, which promotes the release of oxytocin from the pituitary gland and the discharge of milk. Scientific milking methods can not only improve milk production but also protect breasts. The order of milking is "cleaning-wiping-massage-milking". That is, the first step is to wash the breasts with warm water; the second step is to dry them with clean towels, and pay attention to a cow with a towel; the third step is to massage the breasts, from top to bottom to make the breasts swell sufficiently before milking; the fourth step is to abandon the first two handfuls of milk pf each nipple; the fifth step is milking, milking fast, stable and clean are required. Because after milking, the nipples are in an open state. First, they should be disinfected with disinfectant or smeared with tetracycline ointment. Second, cows should stand for 30 minutes and not lie on the ground to prevent mastitis caused by the invasion of pathogens.

4. Strengthen the movement of cows and brush their bodies. 
High-yielding dairy cows are prone to postpartum paralysis. Regular exercise can improve resistance. Dairy cows have abundant skin metabolism and secretions, especially in summer and autumn. Dairy cows radiate heat mainly through their pore and skin. Brushing the body of cows can not only ensure that the pore is not blocked but also increase the blood circulation of the skin, thus increasing the blood flow through the breast, which is beneficial to the health and milk yield improvement of dairy cows. At the same time, brushing cows can also remove the surface parasites of dairy cows. Brushing work should be completed before milking to prevent dust contamination of milk and affect the quality of milk.

High-yielding dairy cows are prone to postpartum paralysis. Regular exercise can improve resistance. Dairy cows have abundant skin metabolism and secretions, especially in summer and autumn. Dairy cows radiate heat mainly through their pore and skin. Brushing the body of cows can not only ensure that the pore is not blocked but also increase the blood circulation of the skin, thus increasing the blood flow through the breast, which is beneficial to the health and milk yield improvement of dairy cows. At the same time, brushing cows can also remove the surface parasites of dairy cows. Brushing work should be completed before milking to prevent dust contamination of milk and affect the quality of milk.

5. Determine the time of dry milk and mating.
Dairy cows dry milk for 50 to 60 days on average. Old age and high-yielding dairy cows have 60-75 days, which can be shortened to 40-45 days with better physical strength and nutrition. During dry milk, the material should be fresh and high quality. Seventy to eighty days postpartum estrus can be mating and insemination time is controlled at 12 hours after estrus. Sterilize instruments and personnel. Besides, amylase and glucoglycolic acid can be added to semen to improve the fertilization rate.

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