1. Enhancing the Comfort of Cow Bed
The importance of lying down for dairy cows is no less than calving and milking. It is related to the health status of dairy cows, such as toe-hoof disease and nutritional metabolic disease. Taking toe-hoof disease as an example, when dairy cows suffer from the toe-hoof disease, it will affect feeding, movement, and estrus, and then affect milk production and conception rate. Therefore, while we pay attention to feeding and lactation of dairy cows, we should also pay attention to the comfort of lying down. First of all, breeders should pay more attention to the comfort of dairy cows. It is hot in summer in Northeast China this year, so the adverse effects of heat stress should be effectively dealt with. Secondly, dry cushion and relative thickness, two to three times a day or week, and to complete without affecting the rest of the cows. Finally, we should formulate the feeding management plan according to local conditions, not copy the management model of other ranches. We should make more work on reducing management costs and formulate a feeding management plan suitable for our ranches.
2. Milking Process Specification
At present, the price of milk is low, and the quality of milk directly affects the price of milk. How to ensure the quality of milk, not only from the raw material formula but also pay attention to the management of the dairy hall, especially in strict accordance with the standardized milking process. For example, the correct and rational use of two medication baths not only benefits the prevention of mastitis in dairy cows but also effectively reduces the number of somatic cells and microbial content in milk, which is closely related to the price of milk. Among them, the first medication bath time should be 30 seconds after wiping cup, otherwise, the first medication bath is meaningless, and will cause some cows in subclinical or even clinical mastitis to infect the cup and healthy cows, which cause cross-infection, and then affect the quality of milk.
3. Improving the Awareness of Disease Prevention
The concept of disease prevention still needs to be strengthened. Improper management will lead to many diseases of dairy cows, such as hoof disease, rumen acidosis, postpartum reproductive system disorders, and mastitis. Many diseases are the derivation of management, that is, the irrationality of management and the timeliness of work. Reasonable and timely selection of vaccines for the ranch is indispensable, some infectious diseases are difficult to use drugs for treatment and control. The diarrhea of calves caused by rotavirus, coronavirus, and chlamydia in some ranches can be said that once it occurs, it may cause a large number of deaths of calves and directly affect economic benefits. In this case, vaccines are the best choice, and clostridium vaccines are essential for some ranches.
Some calf diseases are caused by alfalfa dust or powder, which causes foreign body pneumonia by inhaling directly into the lungs of cows during feeding, and eventually leads to the elimination of calves, which occurs in many ranches. Therefore, calves must pay attention to this kind of problem when feeding alfalfa. Otherwise, it will only be found that the cows keep coughing and can not find the reason.
4.Reducing Feeding Cost from Details
(1). Proper processing and storage of forage
The improper preparation and storage of forage will directly lead to mildew or nutrient loss. For example improper silage production method, intangible nutrition loss is not less than 5%; inventory management should be done: first- in and first -out, no backlog and prohibit the use of expired and deteriorated forage.
(2). Calculate the feeding quantity accurately to realize the accurate feeding
In the current situation, while ensuring the quality of milk, lowering or reducing unnecessary waste is the current way to overcome the difficulties of the ranch. Feed cost accounts for 60%-70% of the total cost of the ranch. If the three points of feeding accuracy, storage rationality and timeliness can be implemented step by step to reduce waste, it is easy to reduce feed cost by 5%-10%.
(3).Periodic maintenance of fixed assets
In ranch management, depreciation of some fixed assets is inevitable, but reasonable and timely maintenance can prolong the service life of the equipment. On the contrary, if we do not pay attention to the maintenance of equipment, the corresponding depreciation cost will also increase.
(4). Costs of fine management and manufacturing
The control of management cost and production cost is often neglected in ranch management. Some inputs can not be controlled, but a waste of management should be reduced. Besides reasonable control of the ratio of man to cows, such as water and electricity, coal, fuel, bath liquid, and paper towel, fine management should be achieved and gradually improved. The management process should be planned and rigorous, making monthly or even weekly work plans according to the annual budget, and implementing specific completion time and responsible person, including calf production, matching plan, equipment maintenance, monthly water, electricity, maintenance costs, drugs, cushions, and other materials.