1. Ensuring a comprehensive diet
Dairy cows in the last 20 days of lactation, to ensure that the loss caused by the previous lactation period can be fully compensated while reserving enough nutrients for the next lactation peak. At this stage, dairy cows should increase the feed of concentrate, absorb enough energy, avoid glycogen depletion during the peak lactation period, and excessive body fat decomposition, resulting in excessive ketone production and causes ketosis.
The dairy cow's diet should not only satisfy its nutritional needs but also satisfy the needs of rumen microorganisms, that is to say, it is easy to digest and ferment. The feeding quantity of concentrate should be moderate. When the postpartum milk yield reaches 20-30 kg, the concentrate can be increased by 1 kg per 4 kg of milk. At the same time, the proportion of concentrate in the diet was more than 47%, reaching the peak lactation period, and the proportion of concentrate could increase to 55%. It should be noted that when increasing concentrate feeding, we must consider the level of energy and protein contained in the diet, not only the improvement of lactation but also the improvement of protein level in the diet while ignoring the supply of sufficient carbohydrates to prevent adverse effects.
During the milk production stage, the amount of chloride ion needed by cows is higher than usual. If enough chloride ion can not be absorbed from the diet at this time, the metabolism of cows will be disordered and their physiological function will be unbalanced, which will result in loss of appetite, weight and milk production. Therefore, in order to ensure that cows maintain good health in milk production and more lactation, it is necessary to add appropriate amount of salt in the feed, usually controlled at 1.8% to 2.4% of the dry weight of the diet, which can meet the needs of chloride ions of the body, while increasing milk production by about 15%. Attention should be paid to keeping the dairy cows' appetite improved, to allow them to eat as much feed as possible. If it is not possible to increase the number of feedings, the concentrate should be fed at least three times a day, while allowing them to freely feed on roughage.
2. Breast care
Hot compress on the breast during the perinatal period.
Dairy cows’ breasts volume will gradually increase when they reach parturition. At this time, daily hot compress massage with a hot water towel can accelerate breast blood circulation, clean breast skin and stimulate breast development, thus laying a good foundation for improving milk production.
Postpartum breast thrombectomy.
Dairy cows from the beginning of the perinatal period, milk will gather in the breast for a long time, to secretion will form cakes. If there is no timely massage thrombectomy, not only milk production is affected, but also prone to mastitis. Therefore, the staff is required to observe the postpartum dairy cows and find that there are cakes in the breast. They should apply hot compress immediately. At the same time, they should continue to massage and rub the cakes with their hands to dredge the lactating organs. They should pay attention to squeezing out the silt in the breast while rubbing until the cakes subside.
It is reported that only about 60% of the breast acini can enter the breast pool without massage, but more than 90% of the milk can enter the breast pool when fully massaged. It can be seen that message of cow breast is very important for the expansion and dredging of lactating organs, improving breast circulation and increasing milk flow, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis to prevent mastitis.
Increase the number of milking.
It is reported that the number of milking cows per day has been changed from one to two times, which can increase milk production by 20%-30% and 10% from two to three times. This is mainly because milking can promote the metabolic process of breast excretion and lactation, thus activating and accelerating breast secretion.
Prevention of mastitis.
Dairy cow milk production will be significantly affected by mastitis, which is usually caused by the inexperience of milkmen, deterioration of surplus milk, unsanitary breasts and traumatic infection of bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to wash utensils and brush cattle regularly. Milking must strictly abide by the operating norms, massage breasts regularly, no empty milking is allowed when using milkers, nipples should be taken medicine bath before or after milking to prevent mastitis.
3. Improve the feeding environment
Grazing and feeding.
If the conditions of the cattle farm permit, grazing can be adopted appropriately, which can not only make the dairy cows eat more good and palatable grass, but also increase their exercise significantly. It is reported that the daily 3-3.5 km exercise of dairy cows can strengthen the physique, stimulate blood circulation, accelerate gastrointestinal peristalsis and digestive function, increasing milk production by more than 500g, and improving reproductive performance. Besides, grazing can also increase light, especially in winter, because of the low temperature of the external environment, tethered feeding can not get enough light, and their milk production has decreased. This is because the growth and development of dairy cows and lactation are largely affected by light, and the light time can be increased appropriately, which can not only increase the rate of weight gain but also increase milk production.
Keep the cowshed dry and clean.
In the process of dairy cattle breeding, feces should be cleaned regularly to ensure that the shed is dry and clean, and pay attention to strengthening the work of killing flies and mosquitoes. Especially in hot summer, the body surface can be wiped regularly, which can not only effectively prevent heat and cool down, keep the body surface clean and hygienic, but also improve milk production and ensure the quality of milk.
Reduce harmful gases and noise.
For closed cowshed, if there is no good ventilation, it will increase the concentration of harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, which will affect the health and milk production of dairy cows. Besides, excessive noise in the shed will affect the production and reproduction of dairy cows. It is reported that when the noise reaches 110-150 decibels, the milk yield of dairy cows will be reduced by 10%. It is usually required that the noise in the shed be controlled below 90 decibels during the day and below 50 decibels at night.