Dairy cow mastitis is one of the most common diseases that puzzle the development of dairy farming, affect the health of dairy cows and the quality of dairy products. It is harmful to the dairy industry. At present, with the continuous expansion of dairy farming scale, the incidence of mastitis is increasing year by year. Here is a specific understanding: the cause of dairy cow mastitis, the harm of dairy cow mastitis and preventive measures.
Dairy cow mastitis is infectious. It is affected by high or low temperature and humidity in the cowshed. Mastitis can be transmitted directly between cowhouses or between cows and cows. The cowshed is not ventilated well. There is dust in the cowshed, and it is not disinfected regularly. The cow dungs outside the cowshed is laid out randomly. It is not cleaned up in time. Milking on the ground is not timely. Cleaning up, cowshed viscera and feces are not cleaned up in time, bedding is not timely replacement caused by bacterial breeding. Especially in summer, site hygiene is poor, flies and mosquitoes increase, biting cows can induce mastitis.
Pathogenic microorganisms enter the breast through the nipple and cause mastitis. The main pathogens are Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and so on. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae are the most susceptible to mastitis. They are most susceptible to infection during milking. Staphylococcus aureus often exists in bovine body and cow feces. Once these bacteria invade the breast, they will cause chronic mastitis. If improperly handled, they will lead to cows. Death, resulting in economic losses of farmers.
In management, many farmers do not pay attention to standardized operation, do not pay attention to observe the health of dairy cows, do not wash hands and milking equipment, do not scrub breasts. In operation, milking equipment and breasts do not match, milking force is too strong, suction time is too long, this kind of non-standard operation will lead to damage around the nipple, such as long-term improper operation and unclean cleaning will cause mastitis. At the same time, in the process of feeding, improper nutritional mix and unreasonable nutritional composition of feed will lead to low immunity of dairy cows, and bacteria invade dairy cows without resistance, resulting in the increase of bacteria in the breast, causing mastitis. Feeders pay too much attention to cow milk production, concentrate overuse, although supplemented with high energy and protein, but will increase the burden of the breast, if not timely supplementation of crude feed and increase the content of vitamins and minerals in feed, mastitis will also occur.
Dairy cow mastitis can cause milk production decline, reduce the quality of milk, people drink milk from cows with mastitis, will endanger health, cause fever and vomiting and other discomfort symptoms, serious food poisoning. First, the incidence of cow mastitis is relatively high. According to the analysis of the International Dairy Federation, 2% of adult cows suffer from clinical mastitis, 50% of cows suffer from subclinical mastitis. The nature of milk produced by infected cows will change, the quality of milk will decrease, the content of lactose will decrease, and the dry matter will decrease by 5%-15%. Milk fat rate decreased, sodium chloride content increased, resulting in a decline in the taste of dairy products. Secondly, dairy cows suffering from severe mastitis must be eliminated, mild diseases can be treated, treatment costs need to be increased in the process of treatment, will also increase the economic losses of farmers.
Prevention of mastitis in dry milk period of dairy cows has been found by clinical research that the incidence of recessive mastitis in the dry milk period of dairy cows is higher. Strengthening prevention work and eliminating the infection in dry milk period can effectively control and reduce the incidence of mastitis.
Sterilization should be strictly carried out during milking. Before milking, breasts and nipples should be cleaned with warm water of 60 degrees Celsius, or breasts should be cleaned with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution. After milking, breasts should also be cleaned. At the same time, milkers are required to master the milking method skillfully, with appropriate techniques and strength, and speed and speed combined. If milking is done with a milking machine, the milking cup should be thoroughly disinfected after the milking. The milking cup can be immersed in 85 C water for half an hour. When milking with the machine, to prevent empty milking, we should do it in time after breast cleaning, and pay attention to the proper position of milking cup during milking.
Clean up the cowshed and feces as soon as possible, avoiding fermentation leads to a bacterial increase. The cowshed should be washed regularly with water, and the corresponding disinfectant should be added per the area of the cowshed during the washing process, and the excrement and rainy water should be cleaned up in time in the sports ground where the cattle are moving. We should keep warm in winter and cool in summer. When feeding, we should pay attention not to feed moldy and deteriorating feed. In the process of feeding, we should pay more attention to observation, strive for early detection of mastitis and timely treatment. To avoid infecting other dairy cows in the course of treatment, we should isolate and treat the sick cows. If the sick cows can not be cured for a long time, they should be eliminated as soon as possible, to protect the health of other cattle and reduce the cost of drug input, and to avoid greater economic losses.
Causes and preventive measures of mastitis in dairy cows
Dairy cow mastitis is an inflammatory reaction caused by stimulating the mammary glands of dairy cows by its own or external factors. The main factors inducing the disease in dairy cows are as follows: some of them are caused by mechanical and physical factors, such as breast trauma, improper milking operation, and other physical factors. Among them, in the process of breast cleaning for dairy cows, the hygiene or use of any tool in contact with the breast is not good. When, all have the possibility of causing the disease; some are due to pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococcus, invading the breast of dairy cows, causing breast infection. According to the current statistics, viruses, fungi, yeasts, mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, Brucella can induce the disease; On the other hand, it may be due to the lack of cleanliness, hygiene or mildew in the feeding environment of dairy cows; some are caused by the strong chemical stimulation of the breast when using drugs to clean the breast; some are caused by the cows themselves, such as disorder of hormone regulation, or the cows themselves swallowing. Deficiencies in cell function may result in a decrease in the resistance of cows to the disease, thereby increasing the risk of contracting the disease; or other genetic factors; also, some diseases such as postpartum paralysis of cows can also induce the disease.
Dairy cows suffering from mastitis mainly show mental depression, loss of appetite, elevated body temperature, redness, hyperemia, decreased elasticity of breast tissue, hardening, pain when touching, poor discharge of milk, yellowing and thickening of milk color, flocculent or milk coagulation, fishy odor of milk, large milk production. The decrease of the amplitude will cause permanent damage to the mammary gland tissue of dairy cows, thus losing its lactation function. Dairy cow mastitis is subdivided into acute mastitis, chronic mastitis, and recessive mastitis. Although cows with recessive mastitis have no inflammation symptoms and abnormal milk phenomena, the milk production of cows will be affected, and pathological tests will find that the number of pathogenic bacteria and white blood cells in the milk components increased sharply. It was found that the milk pH value of cows with mastitis was alkaline. The higher the alkalinity was, the more serious the disease was.
In recent years, the incidence of dairy cow mastitis has been increasing year by year. Although relevant researchers have taken corresponding measures to cope with the occurrence of the disease, there is no sign of improvement at all. Most of the reasons are due to the large scale of dairy farmers, poor feed quality of dairy cows, and the fact that most dairy farmers are farmers. The education level is not very high, and the ability to receive professional knowledge is limited, especially the knowledge about cow mastitis (the etiology of cow mastitis, the main symptoms of cow mastitis) is not known, which makes it difficult to prevent the occurrence of cow mastitis correctly and effectively. Considering that once the outbreak of dairy cow mastitis not only brings serious economic losses to farmers but also poses a greater threat to human health, it is necessary to adopt more specific and effective prevention and treatment programs to alleviate the harm caused by dairy cow mastitis.
The prevention and control of dairy cow mastitis should be paid great attention to, and prevention should be given priority to.
1.1 Reasonable control of temperature and humidity in the cowshed
Temperature and humidity in the environment are closely related to the occurrence of cow mastitis. High temperature and humidity in cowshed can lead to a series of physiological changes of cows, which further reduces their resistance to the outside world. Also, the high temperature and humidity in the cowshed will cause a large number of pathogenic bacteria to breed and multiply, which will increase the risk of cow mastitis. Therefore, we should avoid damp and hot environment in the cowshed as far as possible, pay attention to ventilation and ventilation.
1.2 Ensure adequate and clean drinking water
Water is a good solvent for excretion of metabolic wastes. Owing to insufficient drinking water, cattle can not discharge metabolic wastes and toxins adequately, so the probability of infection will be greatly increased. Moreover, water is an indispensable and important substance in the growth and life of dairy cows. Once the water supply is insufficient, it will seriously affect its digestive efficiency of food, resulting in the inability of nutrition to be absorbed by the body, and further affect its growth and development.
1.3 Keep the cowshed clean and sanitary
Ensure that the cowshed is dry, ventilated regularly, and can be properly laid with straw and other cushions as needed to help create a clean and dry living environment for cows; the cowshed should be cleaned up in time, not accumulated outside the house; as far as possible, the layout of the cowshed should be designed scientifically and reasonably to facilitate the movement of cows and the convenience of staff. Daily milking work, and maintain a scientific and reasonable feeding density; regular cleaning of the cowshed to prevent dust and spider webs throughout the cowshed; regular cleaning of the areas where cows often move, timely cleaning of feces, water, sludge, etc. should be carried out in time to clean the combed, to prevent wet or full of feces and urine. Dirt; If milk is inadvertently milked on the cow bed, it should be washed in time. Careful breast cleaning should be carried out on time to ensure breast cleanliness, and every cow should have a special towel for scrubbing and boiling disinfection every day to avoid cross-infection.
1.4 Disinfect regularly
Sterilization can kill or remove pathogenic bacteria living inside and outside the cowshed and on the surface of cows. Therefore, strict disinfection is the focus of daily prevention work. Firstly, effective disinfection reagents should be selected, and staff members should be regularly arranged to disinfect the cowshed and the areas where cows often move. A series of more scientific and systematic disinfection measures should be taken, such as disinfection and feeding of combed, milking tools, transportation tools, hand and sole disinfection of milkers, and road surface disinfection. Before and after milking, the barrel and milking machine should be cleaned and disinfected carefully. Milking machinery should be regularly dismantled, washed and disinfected. In the season of mastitis, disinfectants should be used once a day to disinfect, and in other periods, disinfection should be guaranteed once a week. The cattle house, living area, aisle, gate, cattle house doorway were disinfectant 1 times per 3D spray, and the road surface and the surrounding area were sprayed and sterilized every 5d1 times. It is better to set up a disinfection pool at the entrance of the cowshed to facilitate the disinfection work and should strengthen the disinfection work of vehicles in and out. Non-staff or foreign personnel are not allowed to enter the cowshed at will.
1.5 Standardize milking operation
Milking should be done at the same time every day to ensure that the cows form a good biological clock for milking. Before milking, the crowded should be cleaned first, and the body of the cow, especially the latter part of the body, should be scrubbed clean at the same time. Before milking, wipe the breasts with disinfectant, wash the breasts with warm water soaking towel, keep the water temperature around 40°C to reduce the stress stimulation caused by low temperature on the breasts of dairy cows, and the water for breast cleaning should make a dairy cow have its pot of water and not mix with other dairy cows. Before milking, the staff should carefully clean and disinfect their hands, and milkers should receive good professional training, be skilled in operation, ensure flexible methods, and avoid excessive force in the process of milking. At the same time, the milking machine should be carefully checked before milking to avoid breast damage caused by machine milking, and before mechanical milking, the milking cup should be carefully cleaned with hot water of about 80 degrees Celsius, and then milked after drying. After milking, the cow's breast is in a very sensitive state to external stimulation. At this time, the cow's breast is very vulnerable to pathogenic bacteria infection. Therefore, Vaseline can be applied to the cow's breast carefully and carefully to isolate it from the outside world, to reduce the probability of infection.
For the treatment of cow mastitis, the principles of early prevention, early appearance, and early treatment should be adopted.
1.1 Reasonable massage therapy for dairy cows
Dairy cow breasts can be regularly and reasonably massaged, each milking time for about 30 minutes massage, to artificially accelerate the breast circulation, make the breast duct unobstructed, alleviate the pain caused by cow mastitis.
1.2 Reasonable hot compress treatment for dairy cows
After mixing hot water at about 50°C with vinegar in a certain proportion, soak it in a towel, wrench it out and cover the breast, once in the morning and once in the evening, about 30 minutes each time, to promote breast circulation and relieve symptoms.
1.3 Reasonable Infrared Irradiation Therapy for Dairy Cows
Dairy cow breasts are regularly irradiated by infrared radiation to promote breast circulation.
1.4 Scientific immunization of dairy cows
Immunization of dairy cows to produce corresponding immune responses can enhance the immune memory of mammary gland cells to pathogens, enhance their immunity and reduce the risk of disease. For dairy cow mastitis, not only a single vaccine against a pathogen has been developed, such as numerous anti-Staphylococcus aureus vaccines currently used, but also a multiple vaccine against a variety of pathogens has been widely promoted.
1.5 Treatment of Dairy Cow Mastitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine
Recent studies have found that Chinese herbal medicines, based on their active substances and nutrients, can help to enhance the self-immunity of dairy cows on the one hand, on the other hand, they also have different degrees of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory magic effect, and have little side effects, and are not easy to produce drug resistance, which is the focus of attention in the treatment of dairy cow mastitis at present.
In the process of dairy cow breeding, the incidence of cow mastitis has been on the rise, and the causes of the disease are multifactorial, which brings many troubles to the prevention and treatment of cow mastitis, which should be paid enough attention by practitioners. For the prevention and treatment of cow mastitis, we should clarify its causes, take further preventive and therapeutic measures, and do a good job of epidemic prevention, to reduce the continuing spread of cow mastitis, and the resulting economic and human health caused by different degrees of harm.