Dairy cows are the production machines and profit objects of cattle farms, but in the actual feeding management, cows will suffer from some chronic diseases because of the unfavorable supervision of cattle farm personnel, which will bring great economic losses to the cattle farms. Therefore, experts remind: dairy cattle breeding must do a good job in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.
Common respiratory diseases
Bovine respiratory diseases are generally caused by the environment, such as excessive harmful gases in the cowshed, which lead to the respiratory tract being stimulated and damaged and infected by a virus, or because of the dry air, excessive dust in the air leading to bovine respiratory diseases. And some cattle respiratory diseases have high infectivity and fatality rate, so cattle breeding should prevent respiratory diseases. Common respiratory diseases in cattle are:
Tuberculosis. The disease is a chronic consumptive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its pathological features are the formation of characteristic granuloma, caseous necrosis and calcified nodules in multiple tissues and organs of diseased cattle. The disease is a chronic process. The cattle show progressive emaciation, cough, and dyspnea, but their body temperature is generally normal.
Infectious bovine pleuropneumonia. The chronic cattle with this disease mostly turn over from acute. The digestive function of diseased cattle is disordered and thin. Most diseased cattle have no obvious symptoms, but they are poisoned for a long time. The cattle were sensitive to palpation, and the lesion was located in the voiced area.
Tuberculosis: Isotoxin callus, streptomycin, kanamycin, and rifampicin can be used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis. No therapeutic significance should be eliminated as soon as possible. There is no ideal vaccine for the disease. The best prevention and control strategy is to strengthen quarantine and surveillance to prevent the introduction of the disease and the spread of the epidemic.
Infectious pleuropneumonia: Tylosin, kanamycin sulfate and other medicines can be used to treat infectious pleuropneumonia. Cattle diagnosed should be eliminated as soon as possible. The disease is mainly prevented. Cattle farms should not introduce cattle from epidemic areas, and imported cattle should be strictly quarantined. Bovine infectious pleuropneumonia attenuated vaccine inoculated once a year in cattle over 6 months of age can prevent the onset of the disease.
Common digestive system diseases
Digestive tract disease is caused by feed nutrition and feeding methods. It can be divided into acute and chronic diseases. If the treatment is not timely, it will often turn into chronic diseases.
Chronic anterior gastric flaccidity. Symptoms of diseased cattle: loss of appetite, reduction or cessation of rumination and belching, weakening or disappearance of peristaltic sounds in the rumen, reticulum, and valvular stomach, weakening of intestinal peristaltic sounds, decreased milk production and depression. Most of the cases turned to chronic because of untimely treatment. The diseased cattle were progressively emaciated, exhausted and unable to lie down. The main reasons are: an improper mix of feed and forage, deterioration, lack of minerals and vitamins, inappropriate management, stress reaction, cattle suffering from nutritional metabolic diseases and the use of antibiotics in numerous rumen flora disorders can also cause the disease.
Chronic gastroenteritis. The main symptoms of diseased cattle are persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, thin feces, mucus and pus blood, its odor, depression of cattle spirit, loss of appetite, stop of rumination, sharp decline in milk production, severe dehydration, acidosis, hypothermia, cyanosis of the mucosa, and eventual exhaustion and death. It is mainly due to the long-term lack of exercise or overwork of dairy cows, coupled with sudden changes in feed or eating corrupt, frozen, polluted, non-digestible, toxic herbs, which easily lead to the disease.
Parasitic diseases. The main symptoms of cattle were hemorrhagic enteritis, anemia, and digestive disorders. Clonorchiasis infection is generally a chronic process, which can cause cow milk production decline, low milk fat rate and short milk production peak period, and affect the growth, development, fertility and calving performance of cows. Serious cases can lead to death. The main parasites that infect the digestive tract of dairy cows are cryptosporidium, Fasciola hepatica, anteroposterior and posterior dishware, digestive tract nematode, Haemonchus contortus, esophageal mouth nematode, Ascaris and so on.
Prevention and control:
Preventive treatment is the main method for anterior gastric flaccidity. To prevent this disease, we should improve the feeding management, rationally allocate feed, refine the diet, and not feed moldy or frozen feed. The main treatment is to stimulate and enhance the motility of the forestomach. Potassium antimony tartrate is usually administered through the gastric tube, which can be injected with neostigmine. The use of micro-ecological agents or traditional Chinese medicine can also play a role in disease prevention.
For cattle gastroenteritis, we should mainly strengthen grazing or reduce labor, increase nutrition, and do a good job of feed supervision.
It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and diagnosis of parasitic diseases and select effective, broad-spectrum and easy-to-use drugs for insecticidal treatment according to the results of monitoring and diagnosis. Two or more drugs can be used together to improve the efficacy, reduce the number of drug use and expand the scope of insecticidal treatment. To change bad feeding management and grazing habits, feces should be concentrated fermentation to eliminate and control pathogens.
Cows suffering from reproductive system diseases are very serious for cattle farms, which will affect the productivity of dairy farms. Therefore, dairy cows must prevent cows from suffering from reproductive system diseases.
Chronic endometritis. Chronic endometritis in dairy cows is mostly caused by bacterial infection during or after childbirth. Chronic endometritis in dairy cows can be divided into catarrhal, catarrhal purulent and recessive endometritis.
The symptoms of diseased cattle are the vaginal discharge of turbid mucus, more mucus when lying down or estrus, abnormal estrus cycle of affected cattle, accompanied by mental retardation, loss of appetite, gradual wasting, elevated body temperature, and other symptoms. Recessive diseased dairy cows have no obvious clinical symptoms. Their estrus cycle is normal, but they are often sterile. Some diseased dairy cows do not have estrus, and uterine empyema or hydrops. During the rectal examination, the uterus of diseased cattle was enlarged, fluctuated, touched the uterus, and no fetus was found.
Brucellosis. It is a chronic zoonotic infectious disease caused by Brucella. Brucella mainly infects the reproductive system of dairy cows. The main symptoms were inflammation of uterus, peritoneum, joints and lymph nodes. The most significant symptoms were the abortion of pregnant cows or infertility of cows. Some diseased cows had foul secretions from the vagina.
Mastitis. Mammary mechanical damage, improper milking methods, delayed milking, unclean environment and lack of attention to breast hygiene are all important reasons for promoting cow mastitis. Dairy cow mastitis is mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus, and cows fed with high protein are also prone to this disease.
Because of the slow development of inflammation in mammary tissue, the clinical symptoms of chronic mastitis are not obvious, and cows do not show systemic symptoms, but their milk production decreases, inflammation recurs, lactating acinus is destroyed in a wide range, mammary tissue fibrosis, and finally breast atrophy and sclerosis.
Prevention and control measures:
The routine treatment of cow endometritis is to use antibiotics to prevent and cure the infection, remove purulent secretions in the uterine cavity, and improve uterine tension and uterine self-cleaning ability. The uterus can be washed with medicated liquid first, and then cleaned by rectal massage, then injected with antibiotics and uterine contractile drugs. At the same time, electrolytes and other medicines can be applied appropriately according to the incidence of the disease.
It is assumed that healthy cattle can be treated symptomatically for brucellosis, and those with no therapeutic significance should be eliminated in time. At the same time, quarantine and surveillance should be strengthened to prevent the introduction and spread of epidemic diseases.
There are many problems that need to be paid attention to in the process of dairy cattle breeding. A little neglect will cause various diseases of dairy cattle. The occurrence of cow diseases not only costs treatment costs, but also reduces the milk production of cows, which directly affects the economic benefits of farmers. Moreover, it can lead to the death of sick cows or the infection of diseases, which will lead to the sickness or death of economic animals in the whole farm. Therefore, farmers should pay special attention to scientific breeding in the process of breeding. They should not rush for success. They should feed cows with too cheap feed or milk promoter. It is also necessary to conduct regular physical examination of animals in farms. Suspected cases should be isolated in time and keep the farms hygienic. The staff of farms should also conduct professional training, disinfection when entering and leaving the farms, and professional training in milking, including the posture, quantity and quantity of milking. The improper work may cause diseases in cows, so we should actively defend against them.