Ketosis mainly occurs in high-yielding dairy cows with good nutrition facts and menstruation. The morbidity and mortality of cow babies increased, and some cattle were eventually eliminated after a long period of treatment and recurrent diseases. Pathogeny
Dairy cow ketosis is also called ketonemia and ketonuria. It is a disorder of carbohydrate and fat metabolism that causes systemic dysfunction. Its disease is characterized by ketonemia, ketonuria, ketone milk, hypoglycemia, digestive disorders, decreased milk production, and neurological symptoms. Dairy cattle of each parity can develop the disease, most of which occur in 3-6 fetuses, most of which occur in the first month of postpartum, most of which occur in the third week when lactation begins to increase, and very few occur after 2 months. Winter and summer are more than spring and autumn, and High-yielding cattle are more than low-yielding cattle.
When dairy cows are lactating, there is a negative balance of energy when the feed intake can not meet the energy needs of lactation. The cows need to use their body fat and protein to degrade them to meet the energy needs and produce excessive acetic acid and butyric acid (a ketone body) during the conversion of fat protein into energy, which leads to ketosis. 。 Overweight female cows during calving are the cause of ketosis. Vitamin B12 deficiency (cobalt deficiency) promotes the occurrence of ketosis. The overproduction of oxytocin by lactation after childbirth leads to an imbalance of insulin and thyroid function.
In light cases, there are no obvious clinical symptoms, and only decreased milk production, slight loss of appetite and progressive wasting are their characteristics. When they are quite wasted, milk production is significantly reduced, and the course of the disease lasts for 1-2 months. Ketosis, in general, can be divided into digestive type, nerves, and paralysis, three types in digestive type, the incidence rate is high.
The light through the need to strengthen management, adjust the feed (reduced protein feed), cooperate with treatment, the prognosis is good, the condition delays, secondary enteritis, dehydration, severe acidosis, and poor prognosis.
Digestive type: normal or slightly low body temperature, superficial breathing (acidosis), hypertonia, pungent odor of ketone in exhaled gas and urine and milk, depression, rapid and marked emaciation, limp gait, rapid decline in lactation, early eating some hay or grass, finally refusing to eat, rumination stopped, forestomach flaccidity, initial constipation, Most of them discharged odorous droppings, and the voice boundary of liver percussion was enlarged, which could exceed the thirteenth rib, and was sensitive to pain.
Nervous type: In addition to the main symptoms of digestive type in varying degrees, there are a series of neurological symptoms such as agitation, roaring, empty chewing, and frequent tongue rotation, aimless circle rotation and abnormal gait, headwall or trough, pillar, loss of vision in some cattle, sensory allergy, somatic muscle and nystagmus, and some of them are excited. It can alternate with depression.
Paralysis type (paralysis type): In addition to many symptoms similar to production paralysis, there are some main symptoms of ketosis, such as loss of appetite or refusal to eat, digestive problems such as anterior gastric flaccidity, allergy to stimulation, muscle tremor, spasm, sudden decline in lactation and so on, such as concurrent with production paralysis, the effect of calcium is not good.
This disease mostly occurs in the postpartum lactation period, which is characterized by emaciation, significant reduction of milk production, lack of appetite, anterior gastric flaccidity and neurological symptoms, enlargement of liver percussion diagnosis area, ketone odor in urine, milk and exhaled gas, and diagnosis can be made. It should be distinguished from other cow diseases such as paralysis, traumatic reticulum-peritonitis-pericarditis, dyspepsia, uteritis, and abomasum metastasis.
Sugar supplement and sugar-derived substances: 500-1000 ml of glucose intravenously, 3-4 times a day, preferably long-term intravenous infusion, oral more than 1000 ml/time, twice a day, after 2 days of continuous dosage.
Hormone therapy: Corticosteroids such as cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and flumethasone also have good effects. Intravenous injection of glucose and appropriate use of small doses of insulin can promote the utilization of sugar.
Relieving acidosis: 50% sodium bicarbonate is injected intravenously, preferably in combination with the determination of plasma carbon dioxide binding capacity. Sodium lactate is also a drug to correct acidosis.
Other symptomatic treatment: appropriate use of sedatives with neurological symptoms such as ambroxol, chlorpromazine, coenzyme A or cysteine, calcium gluconate, B vitamins, vitamins, vitamins, VE.
Pregnant cows should not be over fattened, especially those with multiple parties in the dry milk period. The digestive function should be adjusted well before delivery. For example, the concentrate should be added gradually 3-4 weeks before delivery so that cows can adapt to the feeding of milk production well after calving, but the protein in concentrate should not be too high, generally not more than 16%. Do not feed moldy, spoiled, inferior hay and silage of poor quality, do not suddenly change the feed, feed should contain enough vitamins and trace elements.