Dairy cow stomatitis is a kind of medical disease with blistering or ulcerative lesions at the initial end of the digestive tract. It is characterized by local pain, increased oral temperature, salivation and reduced intake of food. The diseased cattle are also accompanied by ulceration of hoofs and crowns, lameness, unstable walking, and indifference. If not treated in time, they will be infected with other pathogens and viruses and die. Now let's take a look at the clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, and prevention of cow stomatitis.
1. Etiological analysis
Non-infectious factors. Dairy cows are usually caused by eating a large amount of too hard feed, eating cereal spikes or sharp foreign bodies, and improper grinding of their teeth. Besides, dairy cows can also cause the disease by eating irritant substances, such as the high concentration of irritant drugs, ammonia water, and quicklime, eating poisonous plants and lacking several types of vitamins. Besides, mildew stomatitis occurs when dairy cows feed on mildewed forage.
Infectious factors. Dairy cows infected with pathogenic microorganisms, such as vesicular stomatitis, bovine mucosal disease, foot-and-mouth disease, cattle epidemic fever, cattle malignant catarrhal fever and necrotizing bacteria cells, can cause the disease.
2. Clinical symptoms
Sick dairy cattle show ingestion, slow chewing, and sometimes vomiting of mixed foams. Oral mucosa flushing and swelling, mouth temperature is high, and smell bad, the tongue coating is gray, foam mucus from the mouth, but the spirit and temperature did not change significantly.
It usually has an incubation period of 3 to 7 days. In the early stage of onset, the body temperature of the diseased cattle increased significantly, reaching 40-41 C. They were mentally depressed, had a poor appetite and reduced the number of ruminants, but the amount of drinking water increased, the nasoscope and oral mucosa were dry, and the ear roots were feverish.
In the lip mucosa, tongue to form rice-sized blisters, and small blisters tend to fuse to form large blisters, containing yellow transparent liquid. After 1 to 2 days, the blisters burst and the blisters peeled off, resulting in uneven edges and superficial scarlet rot. Diseased cattle salivate heavily and cause difficulty in feeding. Some diseased cows even have blisters on their nipples and feet. The course of the disease usually lasts for 1 to 2 weeks. It recovers well after the prognosis, and there will be almost no death.
The diseased cattle usually suffer from ulceration and necrosis of oral mucosa, with decay and necrosis spots ranging from needle tip to soybean size, as well as dirty grey mucus flowing out and giving off a foul odor, sometimes mixed with a little blood silk.
3. Differential diagnosis
Owing to lack of nutrition facts, such as vitamin B2 or vitamin C, and insufficient zinc intake, dairy cows can develop stomatitis symptoms, but usually do not show symptoms such as temperature rise, crown ulceration, limp and so on. Dairy cows suffering from meningitis and tetanus may also show salivary stomatitis symptoms, but bovine stomatitis does not lead to erect ears, angular arch reflex, systemic spasm, dysphagia or dryness of the tongue, a prolonged extension of the tongue out of the mouth symptoms. In dairy farms, dairy cows eat rough and sharp forage, which results in the direct injury of the oral wall, tongue and gingiva, and the occurrence of traumatic stomatitis.
At this time, there is usually no depression, ulceration of hoof crown, lameness of foot and other symptoms. At the same time, it can be confirmed according to the status of forage. When cows are poisoned by veterinary drugs and pesticides, salivation and stomatitis can also occur. However, the sudden onset of the disease is mainly due to the consumption of large quantities of beans and moldy feed, or exposure to toxic drugs. When cows suffer from salivary adenitis, i.e. sublingual adenitis, submandibular adenitis, and mumps, although they have a large number of salivary stomatitis symptoms, their limbs can move normally, and there are no blisters or ulcerative lesions on the tongue and gums.
4. Prevention and control measures
Western medicine treatment.
The main purpose is to disinfect and reduce inflammation in the mouth of diseased cattle. A few serious symptoms should be accompanied by cardiac tonic fluid infusion. The millet porridge which can not be eaten can be fed with an appropriate amount of sugar. For the sick cattle with appetite, the oral cavity can be washed with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution after eating. When the mouth is salivating continuously and emits bad odor, it can be washed with a 1% tannic acid solution or a 2%-3% boric acid solution twice a day. Then apply appropriate iodine glycerin on the wound surface, and then spray an appropriate amount of bovine and sheep aphthous ulcer Quyusan (the main ingredients are mint, Forsythia Suspense, honeysuckle, etc.).
If the symptoms of diseased cattle are mild, 150,000 IU penicillin and 65,000 IU streptomycin can be injected intramuscularly per kilogram of body weight twice a day for 3 consecutive days; if the symptoms are serious, 200,000 IU penicillin can be intravenously dripped per kilogram of body weight once a day for 4 consecutive days; at the same time, oral medicine bag method is adopted, that is, it is suitable for filling in the cloth bag. Quantity of alum and sulfonamides, then held in the mouth of the sick cow, replaced once a day.
For a small number of diseased cattle with abnormal appetite and elevated body temperature, a mixture of 20-40 mL compound aminopyrine injection and 4-8 million IU penicillin G potassium should be injected intramuscularly twice a day for 2-3 consecutive days; for a small number of diseased cattle, another 1000-2000 mL 5% glucose injection should be injected intravenously. All diseased cattle need to be treated in isolation, usually after 5 to 7 days of treatment can be cured.
Strengthen feeding management. Cattle are subject to strict quarantine on a regular basis and are prohibited from importing cattle from the ward. Cattle should improve the level of feeding management and enhance the body's own resistance. The cowshed should be kept clean, warm, dry and properly ventilated. The enclosure should be cleaned regularly and disinfected regularly to ensure cleanliness and hygiene and reduce bacterial breeding.
In the daily feeding process of dairy cows, cattle breeders should pay attention to the selection of forage with good quality to avoid any impurities in it; forbidden to feed forage with mildew, contamination or mixed burrs, and to feed green fodder with rich nutrition and sufficient vitamins. If dairy cows suffer from pharyngitis, cold and other diseases, active treatment should be taken to avoid secondary blister stomatitis. If infected cattle are infected with infectious stomatitis, prevention should be carried out in three aspects: susceptible animals (cattle), transmission routes and pathogenic microorganisms, with good preventive effect.
For the diseased cows, isolation and disinfection should be taken immediately to avoid the spread of the epidemic, and the sub-healthy cows should be injected with appropriate high immune serum for prevention, and the daily immunization work should be strengthened.