The large-scale farming mode of dairy cows brings some difficulties to the prevention and control of epidemic diseases. Although simple treatment has a certain effect on individuals, it can not meet the production needs of large-scale farming. Therefore, by formulating scientific and effective prevention and control measures, the impact of epidemic diseases on large-scale farming of dairy cows can be reduced and the significance of ensuring the healthy development of the dairy farming industry can be guaranteed. Important. This paper summarizes the prevention and control of infectious diseases, common diseases and nursing of dairy cattle in the large-scale pasture, to provide help for the prevention and control of epidemics in large-scale dairy farms.
1. Infectious diseases
Emphasis should be placed on strengthening the cleanliness and hygiene of cowshed and playground, clearing feces, weeds and other debris in cowshed and playground every day, and ensuring the cleanliness of the cow's living environment, to be conducive to growth and development. Appropriate exercise can enhance the immune system function of dairy cows. In addition to setting up a sports ground for free movement of dairy cows, conditional farm areas can drive out dairy cows to exercise for 1 hour every morning and 1 hour in the afternoon, increase the amount of exercise and enhance the physique of dairy cows. However, we should pay attention to the impact of weather conditions, and try to avoid cows travel in bad weather conditions.
Ensure cowshed warm in winter, summer heat prevention and cooling work, prevent cows from the onset due to seasonal changes. In winter, the cowshed should be closed well to prevent thieves from attacking, and the air windows should be switched on and off regularly. Set up a shelter in summer, install sprinkler nozzles on the top, and do a good job of heat prevention and cooling. Different feed ratios should be adopted for different growth stages of dairy cows to meet the healthy growth of dairy cows. Before feeding, we should check carefully.
Dairy farmers should not feed moldy and rotten feed. We should not feed and drinking water which may be contaminated by infectious sources. We should check the composition of feed in time to ensure the nutrition facts of feed are comprehensive and safe. Frequently check the water quality to ensure safety, supply healthy drinking water, and observe the preference of dairy cows for feed and water quality to meet different needs. Strengthen feed management, supply full-price feed, enhance the immunity of dairy cows, improve the production performance of dairy cows, reduce unnecessary losses of cattle farms.
Dairy farms should strictly control and implement the disinfection system. For isolated and closed dairy farms, disinfectants should be disinfected once a day, and disinfectants should be replaced alternately once a week to eliminate all possible sources of infection. During the normal production period, disinfection is conducted once a week and once a month. Disinfection facilities should be set up in production and living areas, especially in the import and export of cowshed, to ensure the cleanliness of staff and vehicles entering and leaving the cattle farm and to prevent the spread of pathogens.
The quarantine of the calving house and sick cowshed should be in place, and the distance from ordinary cowshed should be more than 50 meters. The diseased cattle should be isolated to the designated cowshed in time for feeding and observation, and the original activity site of the diseased cattle should be blocked, disinfected and cleaned after the blockade, and the feeding equipment should also be strictly disinfected. In particular, respiratory tract transmission diseases, spray disinfection should be carried out in the cowshed. The frequency and intensity of disinfection should be increased during the epidemic of infectious diseases.
Only after the end of the isolation and blockade period can the cattle land and cattle equipment be re-used to cut off the source of infection. It is strictly forbidden to import new cattle from an epidemic or threatened areas. When importing new cattle, quarantine of related infectious diseases must be strictly carried out. Isolated feeding should be carried out for 45 days in strict accordance with feeding regulations. Only after confirming health can the cattle be integrated into the original herd and the transmission of infectious sources of infected cattle be avoided. For sick cattle and dead cattle, we should strictly follow the legal provisions, and the professional personnel should carry out harmless treatment such as killing, burying and burning, and make some disinfection.
Foot-and-mouth disease is the main infectious disease that needs to be prevented in dairy farms. Every spring and autumn, immunization should be carried out, and different levels of antibodies should be used in conjunction with different serotype vaccines. When necessary, immunization should be strengthened once or twice. For other infectious diseases, strict quarantine should be carried out according to different needs.
For example, the prevention and control of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis requires regular quarantine twice a year; other infectious diseases that are not suitable for regular quarantine should be prevented and controlled through strict quarantine at the time of introduction; parasites should be removed regularly in the spring and autumn of each year, to achieve early prevention and early treatment, to ensure the health of dairy cow population and the security dairy products.
Dairy cows are prone to gastropathy, long milk production, and mastitis, one calf per year is prone to endometritis, and nutritional metabolic diseases are prone to occur. Diversity of feed mix, feeding methods, the supply of drinking water is adequate, clean and so on. These factors will affect the nutrition and health of cattle. Feeding dairy cows should strictly abide by their living habits, implement different feeding standards according to their different physiological needs, and reasonably proportionate feed according to different growth stages. In terms of feeding places, cattle breeders should keep the cowshed dry and clean, disinfect the cowshed regularly; strengthen the movement of cows, increase the light, and brush the cows regularly, which will also enhance their immunity; optimize the environment of cattle raising, pay attention to heat prevention in summer and strengthen warmth preservation in winter, which can alleviate the stress reaction of cows.
The diseased cattle should be isolated in a cowshed. Due to the weak physique of diseased cattle, careful observation and careful rearing should be carried out during the breeding process. We should find out in time, treat in time and promote its early recovery. During the period of illness, we should improve feed, feed green feed or carrot, and give clean drinking water. In winter, the water temperature is above 10 C, and increase the number of feeding. To create a comfortable environment for sick cattle, keep clean and quiet, disinfect once a day. The diagnosis and treatment of diseased cattle should be focused on every day to avoid the interference of human factors on diseased cattle.