I. Delivery room in large-scale pastures
1. Hardware Facilities
Specialized delivery rooms must be set up for large-scale pastures. For the old pasture with balanced production, the feeding density should not exceed 80% by calculating the feeding space of each cow in the delivery room for one week. For the newly built mass calving pastures, we must also try our best to meet the delivery room space. We must complete the construction of delivery room facilities before calving production.
2. Guarantee the management of delivery room
Sufficient staff, midwives, milkers, calf-feeders and veterinarians in delivery rooms must cooperate. Conduct the necessary training for the employees in the delivery room to ensure that they are competent for their respective positions. The calving season must ensure that people are on duty in turn within 24 hours.
3. Guarantee the comfort of the delivery room and evaluate it.
Set up a calf production column for single-column feeding. The delivery room should be quiet and comfortable to avoid stress and threat to cows. Laying mattress can improve comfort, and the thickness is not less than 15 cm. Bedding grass should be regularly replaced and spray sterilized every day to reduce the incidence of puerperal diseases. Ensure good ventilation and lighting system. Ensure that dairy cows have sufficient and fresh feed and drinking water. Drinking tanks are equipped with heating facilities. Drink warm water in winter and clean the tanks every day.
Ⅱ. The production process of the delivery room
1. Objectives of delivery room management
(1) Set up a calf-production column (at least 9㎡) and raise it in a single column. Ensure that more than 90% of dairy cows produce calves in the calving sector.
(2) Guarantee the comfort of the delivery room, provide sufficient fresh TMR diet and drinking water, can drink warm water in winter; no stress and interference. Timely replacement of bedding and padding, and regular disinfection, to ensure good hygiene of the delivery room.
(3) Do a good job of delivery room management, there are people on duty within 24 hours during calving season, and supervise its efficiency and effectiveness to ensure that the delivery room works well.
(4) The spontaneous rate was more than 80%, and the assistant rate was less than 15%, of which the assistant rate of first-born cattle was less than 20%, and that of midwifery cattle was less than 10%.
(5) The 24-hour survival rate of calves was more than 95%, of which the calves of the multiparous cattle were more than 97%, and the calves of the first-born cattle were more than 92%.
(6) The proportion of obstetric tract injury was less than 15% in first-born cattle and less than 10% in midwifery cattle.
(7) The morbidity target of placenta retention was less than 5%, and the control standard was less than 10% (12 hours after delivery).
2. Transfer system
In order to reduce stress, transfer to the delivery room at least five days in advance to ensure that all cows deliver in the delivery room. On the one hand, in accordance with the expected date of delivery. On the other hand, in order to prevent premature cows from delivering in the perinatal cowshed, it is necessary to inspect the perinatal cowshed several times a day and find out the cows with signs of delivery as soon as possible. Signs of dairy cows about to give birth: cows nervous, restless, circling, frequent urination; swollen vagina, cool mucus, strong mobility; breast edema, good filling, full of colostrum; pelvic relaxation, sagittal relaxation, tail flexibility. When turning the herd, we must be patient to avoid the cow falling down.
At least 24 hours of postpartum care in the delivery room, complete the delivery room care process, and the placenta must be completely discharged before transferring to the new cowshed.
III. Delivery Management
1. Delivery monitoring
There are people on duty for 24 hours. The midwives should observe and inspect the cattle within 5 to 10 meters in time, or call the surveillance video observation at any time during the operation, and deal with the abnormal situation in time. For example, for cattle with signs of dystocia, timely intervention measures should be taken. Closely observe the cow's behavior, signs of delivery and delivery process, at least every half hour to the scene to observe. Examine the fetal position at the early stage of delivery and correct it if necessary. Reduce the interference and influence, especially the noise of large machinery, and avoid the interference of unrelated personnel.
2. Persist in natural delivery of dairy cows
We should insist on the natural delivery of dairy cows and control the assistant rate of less than 15%. Among them, the assistant rate of first-born cows is less than 20%, and that of midwifery cows is less than 10%.
3. Timely midwifery
Persisting in natural delivery does not mean giving up. Examine the fetal position in the early stage of delivery to see if the fetal position is normal. Pay close attention to cows that suddenly stop delivering or stagnate, and midwifery when necessary.
The golden rule of midwifery is: (1) amniotic fluid ruptures for 2 hours before delivery; (2) there is no progress after the hoofs are exposed for 20 minutes; (3) the tongue of calves is purple. Once one of these three cases is found, midwifery is immediately implemented.
4. Standard midwifery process
(1) To do a good job of disinfection, strict disinfection of instruments, buckets, midwifery ropes, etc.
(2) Wash the hind body of the cow and disinfect it.
(3) It is better to lay down the cattle.
(4) Midwifery following the trend of cow anger and constriction;
(5) Examination of obstetric tract injury. If there is obstetric tract injury, rinse with running water containing disinfectant for 10 minutes, and suture if necessary.
5. Matters needing attention in Midwifery
It must be done. Midwifery should be soaked and sterilized, and midwifery equipment is cleaned and sterilized. The workers must wear disposable long arm gloves and spray disinfection.
Use lubricants to reduce friction and avoid damage. The more lubricants, the better.
Careful use of midwifery:
Avoid midwifery with a pull force greater than 95 kg as far as possible. Use double rope for cattle rope. From cow physiology, the reasonable midwifery pulling force is 70 kg to 95 kg, and the pulling force provided by two people is enough. The midwifery can provide 680 kg to 910 kg of tension by the principle of mechanical stranding, and over 270 kg of tension can lead to calf leg bone fracture.
Scientific use of oxytocin:
It must be injected after the complete opening of the birth canal. Normal dose (30-50IU), strictly prohibit excessively, otherwise inhibit the secretion of endogenous oxytocin. Repeated injection at intervals.
Make calving records:
Set up a special record form to record the number of cows, delivery time, calving difficulty, calf sex and size, premature delivery, calf health status and whether to retain, placenta discharge time and whether the placenta is not enough. Especially calving difficulty.
IV. Nursing in the delivery room
1. Implementing postpartum analgesia and anti-inflammation to scientifically treat cattle with obstetric tract injury.
Postpartum analgesia and anti-inflammation were given to first-born cattle and cattle with dystocia, midwifery, stillbirth, twins, obstetric tract injury, fever, and morbidity. Long-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were injected with a single needle.
Cattle with obstetric tract injury should be treated in time. If necessary, they should be sutured and treated locally. Long-acting antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be given systemically.
2. Supplementary nutrient solution
Postpartum use of "Yimu Health Soup" and other health decoction or nutritional liquid can supplement nutrients, restore physical strength, prevent and treat metabolic diseases.
3. Scientific calcium supplement
The blood calcium level of dairy cows continued to decrease after delivery, reaching the lowest level about 2 days after delivery. Therefore, the blood calcium level of dairy cows was monitored, and scientific calcium supplement, long-term calcium supplement, and persistent calcium supplement were given to the postpartum cows. Bowei calcium was administered at 0 h and 12 h after parturition to prevent milk fever.
4. Promoting the discharge of placenta
At least 1000IU vitamin E was supplemented by diet every day before delivery if not, vitamin ADE injection was injected three times in 21 days before delivery. Calcium supplementation immediately after delivery and oxytocin injection (30 units each at 0 and 6 hours after delivery) were given to promote the discharge of the placenta. The comfortable environment in the delivery room was maintained and stress was avoided to prevent the occurrence of placenta retention.
5. Treatment of retained placenta
For dairy cows with retained placenta, prostaglandins are injected 12 hours after delivery to promote the discharge of the placenta, and oxytetracycline solution can be perfused to wash the placenta to prevent infection and sepsis, especially in summer. To monitor body temperature twice a day, fever patients must be treated with systemic therapy, antibiotics, and non-steroidal antipyretics, analgesics(definition) and anti-inflammatory drugs. After the placenta is completely discharged, it will be transferred from the delivery room.
6. Standardized milking
Colostrum was extruded within 1 hour after delivery, and the quality of colostrum was determined by a densitometer. Those who were not qualified were determined to abandon it, and the blood milk could not be fed to the calves. Those who were qualified were fed to the calves, and those who were surplus were frozen at - 20℃. When they were fed, they were thawed in a water bath and stirred continuously to avoid uneven heat. The temperature was determined to ensure that the temperature was 38 ±1℃. Strengthen milking hygiene, adhere to pre-milking and post-milking medication bath, prevention, and treatment of mastitis.
7. Calf Nursing
Cut the umbilical cord 6-8 cm away from the calf abdomen and disinfect it with 5% iodine tincture twice a day. Quickly dry the mucus at the mouth and nose to ensure spontaneous breathing. Dry the amniotic fluid on the calf, and wear "calf waistcoat" to calves in cold areas. Weighing calves, placing them in the special newborn calf shed, laying mat grass, using bathroom lamp, electric heating and oiling to keep calves warm, to ensure that the temperature in newborn calf house reaches 18~ 22 ℃. Ensure that calves can eat up to 10% of their body weight within 2 hours of birth.