Antibiotics are the 1st class of secondary metabolites, which have antipathogenic or other activities, produced by microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes) or higher plants and animals in the course of life. And it can interfere with the development of other living cells.
What are antibiotics?
At present, the commonly used antibiotic factor in the clinic are the extracts from the culture medium of genetically engineered bacteria and the compounds synthesized or semi-synthesized by chemical methods. Since the 1990s, scientists have expanded the scope of antibiotics, collectively known as biopharmaceuticals. Mainly used for the treatment of diseases of various bacterial infections or pathogenic microbial infections.
In general, its host will not produce serious side effects. There are many ways to produce antibiotics according to different kinds of antibiotics, such as penicillin biosynthesis by microbial fermentation, sulfonamides, quinolones, etc., which can be produced by chemical synthesis. There are also semi-synthetic antibiotics, which are derivatives of antibiotics prepared by biosynthesis and modified by chemical, biological or biochemical methods.
According to the chemical structure, antibiotic names quinolone antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, aminoglycoside antibiotics, etc. According to its users, it can be divided into antibacterial antibiotics, antifungal antibiotics, antitumor antibiotics, antiviral antibiotics, livestock antibiotics, agricultural antibiotics, and other microbial drugs.
What is the side effect of antibiotic abuse?
01. Bacterial resistance:
Antibiotics are designed to kill bacteria, but in the process of killing or inhibiting, bacteria have been "resisting". And abusing Antibiotics can lead to bacterial resistance and eventually no drugs available.
02. Destruction of intestinal flora:
While taking antibiotics, intestinal flora, both beneficial and harmful bacteria can be destroyed. Every time antibiotics are used, the antibiotics can do great damage to the intestinal flora, and even take years to recover. Taking antibiotics also Influences the human immune systems: Over 80% of the body's immune function is based on the balance of probiotics in the intestinal tract. From infancy onwards, the intestinal flora is gradual plays a role, immune function is also activated. The abuse of antibiotics seriously affects the balance of intestinal flora and destroys it. The amount of probiotics affects the body's immune system, making us more susceptible to disease.
03. There were many adverse reactions.
Antibiotics themselves are a kind of drug, and unreasonable use can easily cause adverse reactions. For example, children used Gentamium, amikacin appear deafness, adult-use may have kidney problems. And a large amount of use of the tetracycline in meniscus will cause liver damage, children use will affect the development of teeth and bone problems.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics slow down the Cell development of the hippocampus in the brain of mice, according to a study by the Max Delbruck Molecular Medical Center in Germany.
The hippocampus is mainly responsible for memory and learning. Short-term memory in daily life is stored in the hippocampus.
Chinese. The mice performed poorly on memory tests and had fewer white blood cells.
04. Causes "secondary infection":
When antibiotics are used to inhibit or kill sensitive bacteria, some insensitive bacteria or molds continue to grow and reproduce, causing new infections, which are called "double infections". This is common in patients who have been abusing antibiotics for a long time. Therefore, treatment is difficult and the mortality rate is high.
Why are there antibiotic residues in milk powder?
Milk powder is produced by processing and dehydration of milk. If antibiotics are contained in the milk sourced from which milk powder is produced, antibiotics will also remain in the milk powder as milk is made. So why there are antibiotic residues in milk?
Professor Fang Weihuan, institute of Animal Sciences of Zhejiang University and others said that antibiotic residues in milk are a common problem in the dairy industry worldwide because dairy farms use antibiotics to treat cow diseases. According to the survey, the prevalence of mastitis in dairy cattle farms in China is about 30%.
There are two main ways of using antibiotics to treat diseases in dairy cows: one is partial medication, i.e. direct injection of antibiotics into the breast or uterus of diseased dairy cows; the other is intramuscular or intravenous injection. In these two methods, direct injection of drugs into breast can obviously cause antibiotic residues in milk. Intravenous or intramuscular injection can also cause antibiotic residues in milk because drugs can enter breast and milk through the blood circulation system. Even within 3-4 days after the cure, antibiotics will remain in the body of cows and migrate to the breast and milk. And this kind of milk production should not be sold to the milk markets.
Gao Qingtian, a veterinary expert at Zhejiang University, said that some antibiotics remained in the milk collected within three days after medication. Like milk contaminated by pesticides and radioactivity, it belongs to foreign contaminants and is unedible abnormal milk. For a long time, only penicillin, streptomycin and other antibiotics have been used to treat cow mastitis at home and abroad.
Over the years, the resistance of dairy cows to antibiotics has become stronger and stronger, and the curative effect has become worse and worse. Therefore, the dosage of antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis has become larger and larger, and the antibiotics remaining in dairy cows and milk have become more and more strong.
In addition, some illegality farms will illegally add antibiotics to the feed. Although there is no evidence to prove that antibiotics in the feed will remain in milk, the abuse of antibiotics in the feed will undoubtedly increase the antibiotic resistance of dairy cows, then affect the milk nutrients. As a result, more and more antibiotics are used.
Are residual antibiotics harmful to humans?
Although milk powder is a long-term food, there are fewer antibiotic residues in milk powder. During this period, the long-term intake of antibiotics will have some effects on the human body. Long-term intake of antibiotic residues of milk powder will make normal people passively accept and accumulate antibiotics, resulting in physiological disorders and resistance to antibiotics.
So if a person takes antibiotic residues in milk powder for a long time, when he becomes ill, the antibiotics prescribed by the doctor may have no effect on him, leading to delays in treatment and aggravation of the disease. In this case, doctors, who do not know the reason for the ineffectiveness may increase the use of antibiotics or use more potent antibiotics, which can lead to more serious consequences. Moreover, milk powder containing antibiotic residues is often accompanied by some pathogens.