I. Basic Principles of Dairy Staff
1. The milking of wet and dirty breasts should not be performed. Dirty breasts are breasts covered with water, feces or mud. A wet breast is the accumulation of water on the nipples after drying. Keep breasts clean and dry during milking.
2. Do not milk any cows with abnormal breast and swollen breasts. They need to wait for veterinary examination and treatment. Veterinarians must mark cows with mastitis and take isolation treatment.
3. The milk cup that falls off the ground should be cleaned and refilled as soon as possible.
4. Every milking operator should always be aware of the infectivity of hands and equipment to mastitis.
So gloves must be worn when milking. Milking operations must ensure clean hands and equipment, especially after contact with mastitis cows, you should contact other dairy cows after disinfection.
5. Milkers that do not work properly must be identified and managers must be notified as soon as possible to coordinate repairs.
Ⅱ. The operation process of milking hall
1. Close to the cow in a quiet voice
Be careful and gentle when moving around cows. Fear can lead to lactation obstruction in dairy cows. Strictly prohibit rough treatment of dairy cows, do not beat cows.
2. Examination of mastitis
(1) Check all breast inflammation before milking. Check for mastitis with the first five batches of milk. If there are clots, it is identified as mastitis. If the breast appears red, swollen, hot and painful reaction, but the milk can be milked without problems, such as milk clots, the cows must be transferred to the sick cowshed for treatment.
(2) When cows with mastitis are found, the veterinarian should be notified immediately, and the veterinarian must deal with it promptly and correctly after receiving the notice.
3. Papillary preparation
Milking must ensure that the nipple area and nipples are clean and dry. After a medication bath, wipe with a disposable paper towel (or sterilized dry towel) for dairy cows.
4. Medicinal bath before milking
(1) Clean nipples and take a medicinal bath. Bath liquid covers the entire nipple and stays for at least 30 seconds to kill bacteria. Otherwise, the sterilization effect can not be achieved.
(2) After the medicinal bath, the breast area must be wiped clean, to avoid excessive medication bath liquid remaining in milk. Make sure that the nipple hole is not missing when drying (at the same time, make sure that the nipple is dry and clean).
5. Up and out of the cup
(1) Avoid leaking as much as possible, prevent sliding cups and correct leaking cups in time. Air entry can cause bacteria from one breast area to another, resulting in the cross-infection of the breast area. Mastitis can occur when the cup is taken off and the air leaks.
(2) Do not over-milk, 100-200 ml of milk residue is normal. Overmilking can cause nipple hole damage, leading to mastitis.
(3) When the milk is finished, the milk cup can be removed after closing the vacuum valve or folding the milk tube to cut off the vacuum, otherwise, bacteria will enter the breast.
(4) Starting with nipple stimulation (the first three milk packs), the milking cup group was put on within 60 seconds.
(5) During the milking process, carefully observe the vacuum stability and milk flow in the milking cup group, such as problems in the milking cup group, timely adjust the position of the milking cup group.
(6) Cup milking is forbidden in the necrotic milk area.
6. Medicinal bath after milking
(1) Medicinal bath after milking can effectively prevent mastitis. Make sure that every breast area is bathed after milking.
(2) After the medicinal bath, the whole nipple should be covered by medicine liquor. After milking, use special medicine liquor to help seal and kill the bacteria on the nipple, and then prevent the bacteria from entering the breast and causing mastitis.
(3) After milking, the cows should stand for more than 30 minutes (through feeding). In the case of milking in extreme weather in winter, it is necessary to ensure that after the nipple is dried, it leaves the dairy hall or is replaced by dry powder medicine liquor.
7. Milking order
Primiparous cows → high-yielding cows → medium and low-yielding cow→ other diseased cows→ mastitis cows
(If there is a veterinary milking hall, sick cows and mastitis cows are milked in it)
8. Use and management of medicine liquor
(1) Medicine liquor is stored in dark, dry and safe areas.
(2) Medicine liquor must be ready-made, and the remaining medicine liquor must be discarded after milking every shift.
Ⅲ. Pipeline Cleaning after Milking (CIP)
1. Cleaning order
Clear water → alkali solution + hot water → clear water → acid solution + warm water → clear water.
2. Cleaning time
According to the object to be cleaned to determine the cleaning time, generally as follows: clear water for 3-5 minutes → alkali hot water at 80-85℃ for 5-10 minutes, monitoring outlet temperature above 40 ℃ → clean water for 3-5 minutes → acid warm water for 5-10 minutes → cleans water for 3-5 minutes.
3. The concentration of acid and alkali solution
Acid solution: 0.5% - 1.0% (Ph2.5 - 3.5)
Alkali solution: 1.5% - 2.0% (Ph12 - 13)
4. Validation of cleaning effect
Every CIP cleaning should ensure the cleaning effect of clean water. After cleaning, the quality inspection of the produced water should be carried out in time to ensure that there is no residual cleaning fluid in the pipeline.
(1) Check parts after cleaning: milk cup, milk collector, all milk tube of milk cup group, milk cup seat, milk tube, measuring bottle, measuring bottle sampling port, flow meter, milk collector, milk pump, refrigeration tank, mixing leaf, filter cloth, valve, washer must not have milk dirt, milk stain, peculiar smell, fine sand, etc.
(2) After cleaning, the acidity and alkalinity of the residual water in the milker were detected by acid-alkali PH test paper, and whether there were acid and alkali residues was detected.