1. Milking hall and dairy room
The milking hall that feeding farms need to use 2 to 3 times a day is the most important part of the whole milk production line. The rotary milking table, which needs a lot of labor, has been gradually eliminated. Now a fixed milking hall is more and more popular, and the automatic intelligent milking hall has been put into use. The simplest milking hall is juxtaposed, which is suitable for a worker responsible for 80 cows production line. Dairy cows can have three heads in one unit or six heads in one unit, entering and leaving the milking hall is one cow at a time, and the speed is adjusted manually. There is a concentrate bin on the roof of the milking hall, and the concentrate in it falls into the feeding trough between cows under the action of gravity. Milking efficiency can reach 30-40 cows per hour.
The fish-bone milking hall is more common at present. Milkers stand in tunnels to adjust to avoid bending. The cows entered the milking hall in batches, arranged on both sides of the tunnel, and stood at an angle with the tunnel. Fish-bone milking is suitable for cattle farms of all sizes. If the field is designed as a 1:1 mode according to needs (e.g. 10 milking units and 10 preparatory units), one worker can easily deal with 100 cows in 2 hours. For 300 or more cows, 2-3 workers can be responsible. The concentrate bin on the roof of the milking hall stores concentrate, and each row has a trough.
Some milking halls have now canceled feeding. The automatic shedding device of the milking cup group is available on the market so that milkers can operate more milkers at the same time without over milking. In any milking hall, the working procedures are cows entering, feeding, cleaning and washing their breasts, testing the milk initially squeezed, putting and removing the milking cups, nipping medicated baths or spraying, transporting milk and driving the cows out of the milking hall. In some dairy farms, milkmen have to bathe their nipples before milking, especially in cases of outbreaks of mastitis.
The dairy room should be close to the milking hall, mainly including vacuum pumps, milk pumps, water heaters, and flushing equipment, in addition to the configuration of bulk milk cans. The capacity of milk cans is very important and should be sufficient to accommodate the maximum possible amount of milk. In addition to the emergency delivery of dairy cows, usually 30-35L for each cow. Milking halls and dairy rooms must be kept strictly clean. Ranches should be regularly inspected by relevant agencies. Engines and refrigeration equipment should be placed in the mechanical room.
2. Breeding sheds
Dairy farms are usually divided into grass-covered playgrounds and open fence sections.
The grass-covered playground is comfortable and clean. In winter, a large amount of hay (about 2.5-3.0t per cow) is laid. However, the use of hay reduces the volume of cow excretion and urine. The design of the open fence is exquisite, which has been accepted by most cattle venues in China and can greatly improve labor efficiency. The main requirement is that space should be large enough to improve comfort. Generally, the total length of the open fence is 2.2 m and the width is 1.2 m. It is suitable for lying on the surface. It can be made of metal or wood. For high-yielding dairy cows, there should be more room of cow pens for them to move.
Now there are many new types of open fence. The open-style fence has a high front and low back, there is a certain degree of slope, generally for the cement floor, above the mattress of sand or hay. The head crossbar should be added so that when the cattle stand, the body moves backward, and the cattle feces are not defecated on the open fence. The width of the aisle is 2.4 m and the aisle adjacent to the feeding trough is wider than the general aisle so that when the cattle are feeding, there is enough space behind them for other dairy cows to pass freely. Open fence and dung passage can be arranged in a building or can be used as a part of the special building for free access to the fence. In all cases, good ventilation should be maintained in the cowshed. A skylight can also be opened on the cowshed for ventilation. The feeding trough of the grass-covered playground and the open fence can be either outside or inside the shed. The feeding trough in the shed is beneficial for feeding, but it increases the feeding cost.
3. Feed silage area
The feedstuff silage equipment of cattle farm includes a tower silage pit and a simple silage pit made of brick and stone. Simple silage pit is easy to construct, easy to use and low in cost. The commonly used plywood pit is cement floor, and its walls are made of soil, wood strips or cement. The safety of the silage pit is very important. Its walls can not only bear the weight of silage itself but also bear the rolling action of motor vehicles in the process of silage compaction. For open silage pits, 900 mm indicator rods should be placed at the top of the wall; for capped silage towers, enough space should be left for motor vehicles (5.5 m). All wastewater should be concentrated in a closed tank and cleaned up in time. In the self-feeding silage system, the storage height of silage should not be higher than 2 m, and its capacity should be able to meet the whole winter consumption, which is 12-l5 m³ for ahead. If other feeds need to be stored, they must be kept clean and dry, and free of parasites.
4. Delivery room and isolation room
The layout of the delivery room and isolation room should be reasonable to facilitate the entry and exit of dairy cows. This area should also include operating areas for the maintenance of dairy cows and veterinary treatment or artificial insemination. The delivery room should be separated from the isolation room. The delivery room and isolation room must have sufficient space and secure ropes or other secure facilities. The walls should be painted to avoid pollution. Besides, water dispensers, forage shelves, clean motor lanes and milking rooms (easy to milk in the isolation room) should be set up. Diseased cows may die or be slaughtered in isolation rooms, so truck passages are needed to transport the bodies. For dispersed calving herds, an average delivery room can accommodate 40 to 50 cows.
Planning layout and requirements of dairy farm production area
1. Traditional tethered feeding:
Mainly centered on cowshed, feeding, resting and milking cows on the same bed. The management of dairy farms is parallel to each other, and a personnel contract is adopted in the mode of the management contract. That is to say, each person contracted 15-25 cows. The feeding, milking, and excrement of these cows are all under the responsibility of one person. Its advantage is that feeding management can be refined. The disadvantage is that it is laborious, time-consuming, difficult to achieve a high degree of mechanization and low labor productivity.
2. Modernized bulk feeding:
Mainly centered on cows, the feeding, rest and milking of dairy cows are divided into different specialty areas. Dairy cows are managed vertically or crosswise, and type of work is contracted out in the way of the management contract. That is to say, the feeding personnel is specially responsible for the feeding of cows, and the milking personnel is specially responsible for the milking of cows and the excrement personnel are specially responsible for the excrement of cows. Its advantages are labor-saving, time-saving, easy to implement a high degree of mechanization, and high labor productivity. The disadvantage is the collectivization of feeding management, which is difficult to take individual care of. The overall layout of dairy farms should be divided into two parts: human (residential), cattle (activity), milk (storage), and feeding, rest and milking areas. To minimize the cross-contamination of dirty and clean roads.
3. Requirements for site selection of dairy farming district:
The farming village should be built in a high, dry, leeward sunny, air circulation, solid land, low groundwater level, easy drainage and sewage, an open and flat place with slopes, preferably sandy soil. The water source should be sufficient and the water quality should be good, to ensure the domestic and production water use. The distance between the location of the farming district and the public places such as residential areas, drinking water sources, schools and hospitals should meet the prescribed standards. Generally speaking, it should be in the lower limelight of residential areas, more than 500 meters away from factories in villages and towns. The water quality meets the requirements of "Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water", and it is convenient for transportation and power supply. It is required to be more than 500 meters away from the main traffic roads. Keep away from slaughter, processing and industrial and mining enterprises, especially chemical enterprises. Keep away from the noise.
4. Planning requirements of the dairy farming district:
Rational layout and overall arrangement should be based on the principles of adopting measures to local conditions, scientific feeding, environmental protection, and high efficiency. The allocation of sites and buildings should be compact and neat, improve the land-use rate, save the land, and not occupy or occupy less cultivated land. The production area is closed and isolated, and the engineering design and technological process meet the requirements of animal epidemic prevention conditions. The farming district can be divided into the production area, production assistant area, living management area, fecal and urine sewage treatment area, disease and livestock management area, etc. It requires reasonable layout, strict management of zoning and separation of the clean road from sewage and rain pollution, to facilitate epidemic prevention, disinfection and source elimination. If many farms (households) live in the farming district, production management should have unified requirements and standards.
5. Requirements of the cowshed in the dairy farming district:
The most suitable temperature of cowshed is 10-18℃, which is lower than 0 ℃ or higher than 24℃. It has a certain impact on dairy cows, especially in high temperature and humidity environment, which has a greater impact on milk production. Semi-open cowshed with roof, open on all sides or north-facing south and front should be adopted. Dairy cowshed can be designed as single-row or double-row type, the general span of single-row cowshed is 5.5-6.0 meters, the general span of double-row cowshed is 11.2-12 meters, and the width of double-row middle passage is 1.5-1.8 meters. The cattle bed should be made into a slope with a slope of 1%-1.5%. The length and width of the cattle bed for adult cattle are 1.8-2.0 meters of land 1.2-1.3 meters. There are excrement ditches on the slope under the bed. There are a fixed cement feeding trough and neck flails in front of the cattle bed. The trough is 0.5 meters wide and 0.25-0.3 meters deep. In front of or behind each cowshed, there should be a playground with a drinking pool, a shelter, and a salt trough. The area of the playground should be no less than 20 to 25 ㎡ per cow.
6. Anti-epidemic and epidemic (disease) control requirements of dairy farming district:
In dairy production, we should adhere to the principle of prevention as the main factor, formulate isolation measures and infectious disease control measures, have regulations for prevention and treatment of common diseases of dairy cows, and have emergency plans for occurrence of infectious diseases, effectively prevent and eliminate epidemic (disease) of dairy cows, and improve the economic benefit of cattle breeding.