Ensure adequate nutrition to increase the yield of fresh milk
Some dairy farmers have very extensive feeding and management of dairy cows, not according to the nutritional needs of dairy cows to prepare diets, but feed whatever they have. Roughage is mainly corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw and leaves, concentrated feed are mainly bean cakes, bran, corn flour, which do not pay attention to adding vitamins and mineral additives, and do not pay attention to the supply of vitamin A, D, E and so on. Some even without calcium powder, lead to a serious lack of nutrition in dairy cows, often resulting in paralysis of milk production, no estrus, repeated infertility, placental retention, and other diseases. And the milk volume, milk fat rate and the utilization of years of dairy cows decreased, the mortality and elimination rates increased, and the economic loss was heavy.
Therefore, forage feed should be as diversified as possible, and we must not forget to add a certain amount of trace element additives. To have good palatability and comprehensive nutrition to meet the needs of dairy cow production. At the same time, attention should be paid to the addition of appropriate vitamins, trace elements, and minerals, it is best to use special premixed feed for dairy cows.
Added concentrate properly to prevent obesity in dairy cows
It is a Misconception that some people think that cows are obese and produce more milk, so they feed as much concentrate as possible, which often results in overweight cows. At the same time, due to the excessive feeding of concentrate, it is very easy to cause weakened rumination, forestomach relaxation, and acidosis in dairy cows. If high protein and high-fat concentrate are excessive and rough feed is insufficient, it is easy to cause the disorder of fat metabolism in dairy cows. After the development of ketosis acidosis, it is easy to cause the death of dairy cows. Therefore, it is best to keep 70% to 80% fat in the production of dairy cows. Farmers should feed according to the characteristics of different physiological stages of dairy cows. Gramineae hay should be the main type of dry milk period. The daily silage should be 6 kg-8 kg. Concentrate feeding should be controlled at 2.5 kg-3.5 kg according to the quality of roughage, to prevent over fattening of dairy cows. The concentrate was gradually increased from 2 to 3 weeks before delivery, increasing by about 0.5 kg per day, reaching 7 kg before calving. Do not feed immediately in the first week of postpartum. After one week, add 0.5 kg-0.8 kg concentrate per day until the normal concentrate feeding is reached (maintain 2.5 kg/head/day, lactation feed 1 kg concentrate per 3 kg milk).
Postpartum roughage is mainly leguminous forage, and fed as little tuber, dregs and silage as possible within two weeks to avoid indigestion; after two weeks, it can be fed in an appropriate amount according to needs, but the daily feed of silage should not exceed 20 kg, the dregs should not exceed 10 kg, the toot tubers should not exceed 6 kg, and the hay can be eaten at will. The milk production of most dairy cows began to decrease after 5 months of calving, and the concentrate feeding should be adjusted in time according to the amount of lactation.
Fine preparation of forage to promote digestion and absorption
As the saying goes, "Every inch of grass is chopped three times and fattened without material." This is not to say that the shorter the hay is, the better the hay is, but too short hay is not conducive to ruminant digestion. Generally, corn straw is 2 cm to 3 cm long, and it is better to make silage for feeding. Some dairy farmers are eager to save time by feeding concentrate. They feed directly with unprocessed corn or wheat, which results in an unbalanced nutritional intake of dairy cows and invisibly increases feed cost. Some crush the concentrate too fine. Normally the diameter of the concentrate is 1-2 mm, which is equivalent to 1/6-1/8 of the whole corn. Crushing too fine is also not conducive to digestion and absorption, resulting in "excess", which can be seen in feces numerous undigested materials.
Others soak concentrate for a long time, believing that the cow is easy to digest and absorb after the concentrate is softened. Little do they know that the nutrients of the concentrate are destroyed after a long time soaking. Because of the large number of bacteria breeding, the feed is sour. After the cow is fed, the rumen environment is destroyed, the digestive function is disordered, and the health of the cow is affected. The correct way is to feed dry powder or wet mix before feeding.
Supplementary feedstuff during dry milk period is beneficial for protecting fetus and fat
After calving and lactation, dairy cows lose more nutrients and need more nutrients for pregnancy and embryonic development. During the dry milk period, concentrates should be supplemented according to the body condition of dairy cows to meet the physiological needs of dairy cows. However, some farmers think that it is better not to feed concentrate or fewer concentrate when they are not milking, so they drastically reduce the concentrate feeding. As a result, the fattening condition of dairy cows before parturition is too bad, the calving time-consuming and even difficult to produce, the calves produced are weak, and the milk production of cows is reduced. Therefore, in addition to reducing concentrate feeding in a few days after dry milk and a few days before parturition, concentrate feeding should account for 0.8% - 0.9% of the cow's body weight during dry milk period to ensure that the cow maintains normal health.
Save forage by feeding cows with a feeding trough
When feeding cows, most dairy farmers do not have a feeding trough, but directly put the forage on the ground for the cows to eat. Some only use baskets to hold the grass, which is often toppled on the ground by the cows. This not only causes numerous forage trampled by the cows but also brings some unclean goods and pathogens. After feeding, the cows are prone to gastrointestinal diseases or infectious diseases. Therefore, it is suggested that dairy farmers should also set up stone troughs, wooden troughs or cement troughs to tie cows outside their sheds, and put grass in troughs for cows to eat, so that keep pathogens out of the mouth.
Of course, in the process of dairy breeding, the supply of water is also crucial, and adequate and clean drinking water should be provided. However, to make the cows drink more water and produce more milk, some dairy farmers added 3% - 4% salt to their feed. It is very easy to cause salt poisoning in dairy cows. Even if there is no poisoning, it will increase the burden on the kidneys of dairy cows. Although the milk yield increased slightly after excessive salt feeding, the corresponding milk fat rate and proportion decreased, resulting in a loss of value. In production, the salt content in concentrate should be controlled between 0.7% and 0.8%. If the salt feed is insufficient, a trough can be set up on the farm, and salt or licking bricks can be put in it for free licking of dairy cows.