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Advantages and Application of Total Mixed Rations for Dairy Cows

Posted on: November 28, 2019, by Victoria

1. Advantages of Total Mixed Rations for Dairy Cows
The intake of dry matter can be increased by using a total mixed rations for dairy cows. The use of total mixed rationscan ensure that the nutrients in the diet are adequate and the proportion of concentrate to roughage is reasonable, which can make cows obtain all kinds of nutrients from the low-energy diet, reduce the use of concentrate feed, improve the utilization rate of feed, and reduce the feed cost. Besides, the total mixed rationscan optimize the feed formulation, improve the palatability of forage feed, adjust the nutrients in the diet and the ratio of concentrate to roughage one by one, and effectively prevent dairy cows from picking food.

All kinds of nutrients in the total mixed rations of dairy cows are balanced, and the proportion of roughage to concentrate is appropriate. It provides protein, energy, cellulose and other nutrients for the rumen microorganisms of dairy cows, accelerated the reproduction speed of rumen microorganisms, improved the synthesis efficiency of bacterial protein, and prevented cows from reducing rumen pH value due to excessive feeding of concentrates in a short time, which would lead to rumen acidosis. In addition, the use of total mixed rationscan also maintain the stability of the rumen environment, effectively prevent the digestive system and function disorders of dairy cows, so that the rumen fermentation, digestion, absorption, and metabolic functions can be carried out normally, which is helpful to improve the utilization of feed and milk fat rate, but also can reduce the incidence of some diseases, such as rumen acidosis.

The total mixed rationsfor dairy cows is suitable for large-scale production and is beneficial to the development and utilization of local feed resources. The total mixed rations for dairy cows is suitable for large-scale dairy farms. Using this technology can improve feeding efficiency, reduce labor force, save time and labor in feeding management, and also reduce the waste of forage in the traditional feeding process. When using the technology of a complete mixed diet, the formula can be designed according to the local feed resources, which can make full use of the local feed resources. Besides, this technology mixes many kinds of feeds, some of which have poor palatability and bad odor, like straw feed and distiller's grains after mixing by the mixer of a complete mixed diet, which will increase the mouthfuls. So the range of feed selection is wider, which is conducive to the development of feed resources.

The formula of the total mixed rationscan be adjusted flexibly, and the formula can be adjusted in time according to the local feed. It is very beneficial to reduce feed costs and improve breeding efficiency. It can also according to the actual situation of dairy cows to adjust the special requirements of nutrition and production conditions.

Dairy Cows
Dairy Cows

2. Selection of total mixed rations equipment.
In order to operate conveniently in total mixed rationsof dairy cow production, when building cowshed, the span should not be less than 10 m, the length should be 60-120 m and the width of feeding passage should be 4-4.5 M. The design of feeding trough should be determined according to the type of all mixing diet machinery used. For traction machinery, it is suitable for in-situ feeding trough and horizontal feeding trough can be flexibly adjusted. The total mixed rationsis mixed by a mixer truck and sent directly to cow feeding trough. It needs a complete set of equipment to be put into one-time. When using a mixer truck, the load should be appropriate, generally about 65% of the total volume. It is suggested that the mixer truck of 7 m³ be used in 600 cattle farms and 12 m³ for 1000 cattle farms. To ensure the nutritional balance of the diet, it is necessary to mix all the raw materials well and to have special equipment to cut or crush them. The equipment should have good mixing and metering functions to ensure the nutritional balance of the diet.

3. Cows should be raised in groups.
The total mixed rationsis based on the different growth stages, physiological status and production performance of dairy cows. It can meet the nutritional needs of dairy cows at all stages. Therefore, dairy cows should be fed in groups. The dietary formula for each group is different. In theory, the smaller the herd is, the better the performance of dairy cows can be brought into full play. But in practice, to facilitate the management, it can not be too fine. For large dairy farms, they can be divided into prophase, metaphase, and anaphase according to the lactation period. For those dairy cows with higher or thinner milk production in the mid-lactation period, they should be classified as the early lactation period. Small dairy farms can be divided into high-yielding cows and low-yielding cows according to milk production. For replacement cows and dry dairy cows, large cattle farms can be divided into calves, bred cows, young cows, pre-dried milk and post-dried milk. Small cattle farms can be divided into replacement cows and dry dairy cows.

Dairy Cows
Dairy Cows

4. The formulation of a mixed diet for dairy cows.
Before formulation, we should scientifically design and formulate mixed diets, and formulate them according to the local feed resources and the actual situation of dairy cows. The nutritional requirements of dairy cows at different physiological stages and production levels are different. To be convenient and feasible, five kinds of complete mixed diets with different nutritional levels are generally required, which are divided into high-yielding cows, medium-yielding cows, low-yielding cows, replacement cows, and dry dairy cows.

Before formulation, we should scientifically design and formulate mixed diets, and formulate them according to the local feed resources and the actual situation of dairy cows. The nutritional requirements of dairy cows at different physiological stages and production levels are different. To be convenient and feasible, five kinds of complete mixed diets with different nutritional levels are generally required, which are divided into high-yielding cows, medium-yielding cows, low-yielding cows, replacement cows, and dry dairy cows.

For some special cattle, specific diets should be prepared according to their actual situation. Considering the scale of cows and the feasibility of dietary production, low and medium-yielding cows can be grouped. For primipara cows, appropriate adjustments should be made according to actual feeding conditions. For example, the feed intake of postpartum cows decreases and the milk yield increases, the negative nutritional balance tends to occur. The nutritional concentration of the diet should be increased. The choice of feed materials requires that the types of feed materials should be as diverse as possible, which is beneficial to the complementarity of nutrition. The water content of the total mixed rationsshould be kept between 35% and 55%, which is beneficial to increase the intake of dairy cows. When feeding the complete mixed diet, we should observe the feeding situation, rumination, appetite, and leftovers of cows. If we find problems, we should take appropriate measures to deal with them in time.

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