Lactose intolerant population
With the improvement of people's living standard and the increasing attention to health, dietary supplements have become popular "commodity stars", which with different effects on human health emerge in endlessly, but their effects are relatively single, and a type of dietary supplement always can produce a corresponding effect on the human body. Under such circumstances, milk is still in the first place in people's pursuit because of its rich and comprehensive nutrition, simple processing and less impurity mixing. So, how much do you know about this long-standing popular beverage?
Milk, as its name implies, is squeezed from female cows. It contains a variety of milk nutrients, is a natural beverage that has been popular since ancient times, enjoys the reputation of "white blood". The third Tuesday of May is International Milk Day.
Using the farm fresh milk as raw material and pasteurizing method, it requires refrigeration at 4~10℃ for the whole process and it’s popular at present. Milk with a shorter shelf life is mostly pasteurized "homogeneity" (refers to new technology in milk processing, that is, crushing fat globules in milk, so that fat can be fully dissolved into protein, thus preventing fat adhesion and coagulation, but also more conducive to human absorption) milk. With this method, the nutritional components of milk can be preserved to the greatest extent, including lactoferrin, immunoglobulin, bioactive peptide, beta-lactoglobulin and other hundreds of active substances, collectively known as "natural active nutrition", which can resist the invasion of pathogens such as bacteria, activate the immune response internal, and maintain the health of the body. It is one of the most advanced milk disinfection methods in the milk markets.
②.Ultra-high temperature sterilized milk
High temperature sterilized milk (also known as UHT), using fresh and high-quality milk source, can effectively eliminate bacteria (135℃～150℃, 4～15 seconds) by ultra-high temperature technology, destroying the growth of microorganisms and spores. Moreover, it does not affect the milk nutrition facts with the value of fat, minerals and major proteins in milk, and essential amino acids and the nutritional value of vitamins have only a very few minor changes.
In order to ensure the long-term safety of milk after sterilization, it is necessary to use aseptic packaging to package milk in a bag, so as to protect the product from exposure to light and oxygen in the air, so as to effectively inhibit the reproduction of microorganisms in milk while preserving the original nutritional components of milk, making the product commercially sterilization and realizes the storage and transportation without preservatives and cold chain.
Fresh milk is the common name of raw milk which has not been sterilized and homogenized. At present, a small amount of "fresh milk" is sold in bulk. Its milk fat globule is large and tends to gather and float after boiling, thus bringing about the sense perception of viscosity and palate fullness. However, fresh milk without any disinfection treatment has some food safety hidden dangers, especially for children, the elderly, pregnant women and people with low immunity, the risk of pathogenic bacteria infection after drinking is greater.
Whole milk nutrition all has been retained so that the human body can fully absorb it. It contains about 3% of protein, 3% of fat, 120 mg/100 ml of calcium, and fat-soluble vitamin K, A and E. It is one of the best foods for people to supplement calcium. Moreover, CLA substance in whole milk can resist many kinds of cancer cells, block the growth of cancer substances in the human body, especially help prevent breast cancer. It is suitable for people who lack calcium, children, irritable, sleepless and people with high work pressure to drink.
Low-fat milk refers to the product which removes most of the fat components from milk by centrifugation. The fat content is about half of that of fresh ordinary milk, ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Calcium and B vitamins are equivalent to that of whole milk. This milk is mainly suitable for those who are obese, not suitable for re-intake of fat and middle-aged and elderly people to drink.
Skim milk refers to dairy products with less than 1% fat content obtained from whole milk by centrifugation or heating, the fat content is less than 1/7 of the normal milk. It will lose some fat-soluble vitamin A and vitamin D in nutritional value, which will affect the absorption of calcium, and the taste is worse. Skim milk is suitable for obese, elderly and hypertensive patients to drink. After drinking, it can minimize fat accumulation and prevent the occurrence of high blood pressure and blood consistency.
①. Reconstituted milk
Reconstituted milk is to concentrate and dry milk into concentrated milk (condensed milk) or milk powder, and add an appropriate amount of water to make the emulsion that is proportional to the water and solid content of raw milk. It is different from fresh milk in two aspects. First, raw materials are different. The raw materials of reconstituted milk are milk powder of mammals, raw milk is liquid milk. Second, the nutritional components are different. After two ultra-high temperature treatments, the nutritional components of reconstituted milk were lost, while the nutritional components of fresh milk were preserved.
It is one of the indicators of the milk factory. Antibiotic-free milk refers to the milk produced from antibiotic-free raw materials. "Antibiotic" refers to all kinds of antibiotics used to treat diseased cattle, such as penicillin, streptomycin and so on. Dairy cows are susceptible to mastitis during seasonal change every year, and mechanical milking is more susceptible to mastitis than manual milking. Antibiotics are injected directly into the breast of cows so that the cows can recover as soon as possible. After antibiotic treatment, milk produced in a certain period will retain a small number of antibiotics, which can not be processed as raw materials for edible milk.
Buffalo milk, as its name implies, is the milk produced by water buffalo. The contents of fat, protein, and lactose in the buffalo milk are several times higher than those in Holstein cattle milk, and the contents of minerals and vitamins in the buffalo milk are ten times higher than those in Holstein cattle milk and breast milk. It has good flavor, low cholesterol, rich vitamins and trace elements, especially high casein content, and can be used for deep processing of high-quality dairy products. It also has particularly high anti-aging zinc, iron and calcium content, and rich amino acid and vitamin content. It’s the most suitable beverage for children's growth.
Milk is rich in nutrients and can supplement many minerals, amino acids, and proteins needed by the human body. Apart from calcium, the contents of phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and molybdenum are very high. According to the research, in every 100 grams of milk, there are about 87 grams of water, 3.3 grams of protein, 4 grams of fat, 5 grams of lactose, 5 grams of carbohydrate, 120 mg of calcium. It also contains iron, vitamin A, B vitamins, niacin, and vitamin C, which can provide rich nutrition for the human body.
Milk contains a variety of nutrients, and its function to the human body is not consistent. Here mainly introduces several common and high content substances in milk.
Calcium: It in milk belongs to active calcium, which is easily absorbed by the human body, and the human body needs a lot of calcium to form strong bones and teeth. Calcium can not only promote the growth of children but also play an important role in the normal calcification of bone and teeth of developing children and adolescents. It can also effectively reduce bone loss and relieve osteoporosis caused by aging and has a certain protective effect on the heart of middle-aged and elderly people. Besides, it is helpful for the normal operation and expansion of the nervous system, and coagulation of the blood.
Fat: The main function of fat is to generate and supply human thermal energy. The form of milk is mainly dispersed in the emulsion with tiny fat globules. Fat globules are big or small, and milk is mainly big fat globules, so milk has a good flavor. Fat is also an important nutrient for the growth of the human body, especially for children, and it is an indispensable nutrient.
Lactose: Lactose contained in milk (containing 5%) plays an important role in the development and growth of infant brain nerve, and can promote the absorption of calcium in the human intestinal wall, which is up to 98%, thus regulating the metabolism of calcium internal, maintaining the concentration of calcium serum and promoting bone calcification.
Protein: It is the material basis of human life activities, is one of the important nutrients, the human body must absorb enough protein so that the whole body cells can maintain the normal operation. Milk contains high-quality proteins, mainly casein, albumin, globulin, and lactoprotein. It can form and repair human tissues, participate in regulating osmotic pressure and acid-base balance in the body, and provide energy.
Vitamin: It is a kind of organic compound that is necessary for maintaining health. It plays an important role in the growth, metabolism, and development of the human body. Milk is rich in vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins are vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and carotene; water-soluble vitamins are vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, and choline.
Carbohydrates: It is one of the seven major nutrients in the diet and has important functions in regulating cell activity.
Inhibiting cancer: Milk contains a CLA substance, which can effectively destroy the free radicals in the human body which are dangerous to carcinogenesis, and can quickly bind to the cell membrane, so that cells are in a state of defense against the invasion of carcinogenic substances, thus playing a role in cancer prevention. Moreover, the calcium contained in milk can effectively destroy carcinogens in the human intestinal tract, make them decompose into non-carcinogens, and discharged from the body. Vitamin A, vitamin B2 and vitamin D in milk have certain preventive effects on gastric carcinoma and colon cancer.
Mind-tranquilizing: Milk contains a certain amount of sedative and tranquilizing substances, such as benzodiazepines. These substances can inhibit the nerve center of the human body and play a very good role in tranquilizing the mind.
Maintain beauty: Milk is rich in nutrients and contains high-level fat, various proteins, vitamins and minerals, especially B vitamins, which can moisturize the skin, protect the epidermis, prevent cracks and wrinkles, to make the skin smooth, soft and white, the hair black and reduce shedding, thus playing a role in skincare and beauty.
Help lose weight: Calcium in milk can help the body burn fat and promote the body to produce more lipid-degrading enzymes.
Promote the brain development of children: Milk contains nutrients which are suitable for the development of children, especially phosphorus, which plays an important role in promoting the brain development of young children.
Supplement nutrition: Milk contains comprehensive nutrients. Drink milk often can provide nutrition for the body in an all-round way, which is very good for health.
Provide energy for the body: Milk is rich in protein substances, and the protein itself is one of the three major productivity nutrients. Drinking milk can supplement energy for the body, and can provide sufficient impetus for work and learning.
Adjust endocrine: Milk is rich in protein and sulfur-containing amino acids, which can enhance human immunity, adjust endocrine and improve microcirculation.
The best time to drink milk should be at night. This is because there is a biochemical tryptophan in the milk that can make people tired and sleepy. Besides, there is abundant trace morphine substance. These substances have a good sedative and hypnotic effect, to promote sleep. Especially L-tryptophan in milk, which is the main raw material for the brain to synthesize hydroxyl, and serotonin plays a key role in brain sleep.
Drinking milk at night not only improves sleep quality but also has a good calcium supplement effect. This is because the level of calcium in the blood gradually decreases after sleep, which promotes the hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands. A part of the calcium salt in the bone tissue dissolves into the blood under the action of hormones, thereby maintaining a stable balance of blood calcium.
More than 80% of the protein in milk is casein. Casein is easy to agglutinate under acidic conditions, leading to indigestion and diarrhea. Fruit juice, orange, leek or spinach belong to acidic food, which can coagulate protein into lumps in the stomach, thus directly affecting people's absorption of protein, reducing the nutritional value of milk, and also causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and abdominal distension. If acid food is to be eaten, it should be taken after drinking milk for 1 hour.
The lysine contained in milk can react with fructose under heating conditions to produce toxic, which is harmful to the human body. When fresh milk is boiled, do not add sugar, but add after it is cooler.
Milk is rich in protein and calcium, while chocolate contains oxalic acid, which can combine into insoluble calcium oxalate when eaten together, greatly affecting the absorption of calcium. Even occur the phenomena of hair dryness, diarrhea, and slow growth.
Some people like to take medicine with milk instead of boiled water. Milk can easily form a cover film on the surface of drugs, which will affect the absorption of drugs by the human body. Calcium and iron in milk can form stable chromium compounds or insoluble salts with tetracyclines and erythromycins, which make it difficult for drugs to be absorbed by stomach and intestines. Some drugs can even be destroyed by these ions, which will reduce the concentration of drugs in blood and affect the curative effect. Therefore, do not drink milk for an hour before and after taking the medicine.
When drinking milk, tea should not be drunk at the same time, because tannic acid in tea can hinder the absorption of calcium ions in milk.
70% of milk is water, but this does not mean that milk can be drunk as water because, in some whole milk, animal fat and saturated fatty acids can have some adverse effects on human health. It is generally recommended that adults drink milk between 200 and 300 ml a day.
Some people are seriously deficient in lactase, but milk contains high lactose, which requires the human body to break down lactose bionic acid into galactose and glucose through the digestive tract before it can be absorbed by the human body. If people with lactose intolerance to drink milk, it will stimulate the intestinal peristalsis to accelerate, easily lead to diarrhea, borborygmus and other issues, which are not conducive to health.
Some studies have shown that milk can promote the secretion of gastric acid more than ordinary food, thus exacerbating and inducing digestive tract disease. It can be seen that people with gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, cholecystitis, and other digestive tract diseases should not drink milk, otherwise the condition will be worse.
Food allergies are adverse reactions caused by inappropriate immune responses to food proteins. Milk allergic people are allergic to the protein in milk.
This kind of person must not drink milk, in the serious case will cause more discomfort, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, asthma, and other diseases. People who allergic to protein as far as possible away from milk.
Milk contains a lot of calcium, but a large amount of calcium can affect iron absorption, and iron deficiency anemia patients need to replenish a lot of iron, so do not drink milk during treatment.
Lactose in milk can promote the absorption and accumulation of lead in the human body, which is easy to cause lead poisoning, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, insomnia, fatigue, and other adverse reactions. Therefore, people often exposed to lead can use yogurt instead of milk, because the lactose in yogurt is very little, most of it has become lactic acid, which will not lead to lead poisoning.
The potential hazards in milk are mainly aflatoxin M1, which belongs to one of the similar compounds of aflatoxin and has the highest occurrence rate of aflatoxin in food and feed in hot- humid areas. The physical and chemical properties of it are quite stable and not destroyed by pasteurization. After mammals ingested feed or food contaminated by aflatoxin B1, they converted to aflatoxin M1 through hydroxylation. The main hazards of aflatoxin M1 are carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. It can destroy human and animal liver tissues and lead to liver cancer and even death.
Aflatoxin M1 in milk mainly comes from the feed of dairy cows. Dairy cows not only eat a great variety of feeds but also eat a large amount, which leads to the types and probability of mycotoxins exposed to them are also high. Aflatoxin exists in soil, animals, plants, and nuts, especially easy to contaminate oil products such as peanut, corn, rice, soybean, wheat, and other grain. Aflatoxin is the most toxic mycotoxin and the most prominent harm to human health. Aflatoxins are also accumulative. Animals fed low doses of aflatoxins for a long time can cause chronic poisoning in animals. The main manifestations are slow growth, weight loss, reduced feed efficiency and production performance, and the destruction of the immune system.
If humans consume these toxin-containing milk and dairy products for a long time, they will cause chronic poisoning and liver cancer for a long time.
Choose the original place. Even with the development of cold chain transportation, milk preservation still needs excellent transportation and preservation control. Fresh milk from the near cattle company is naturally advantageous. On the premise of short-distance transportation, milk can ensure more fresh nutrition.
Choose a brand. Relatively speaking, the industrial chain of brand fresh milk is relatively more transparent, and the cold chain transportation and preservation system is more perfect, which is more conducive to ensure the freshness of milk.
Look at the registration date. Although fresh milk on the same shelf or even on the same row of showcase has different register date, we can pay attention to the date when selecting, try to select the fresh milk which is produced more recently, and select the fresh milk which is on the market on that day.
Firstly, look at the nutritional ingredient list on the package. We should pay attention to the total solid content of milk. The total solid content of milk mainly contains four components, they are fat, protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. We also need to pay attention to the content of various minerals.
Secondly, look at the color of the milk. The color of good quality milk is milky white (can be slightly yellowish), and the all sense perception for people is the light flavor. If we buy pure milk that tastes thick, it's extremely abnormal. There is a smelling smell before drink, and the milk that has been smelling for a long time after drinking is very likely to add milk flavor.
Thirdly, the purchased milk (not boiled or heated in the microwave oven) can be quickly poured into a clean transparent glass, and then slowly tilt the glass. If a thin film of milk stays on the inner wall of the glass and does not hang the glass and it is easy to wash down with water, which is fresh milk. Such milk is delivered to processing plants in a short time, and the total number of bacteria is very low. If the milk film on the glass is not uniform, and even small particles visible to the naked eye hang on the wall of the glass, and it is not easy to clean, that means the milk is not fresh enough.
Finally, drop a few drops of milk in a bowl of cold water. The solidified milk is of better quality, and the floating milk is of poor quality.