Therapeutic methods of scattered head swelling disease in dairy cows

What causes head swelling?

Posted on  November 7, 2019, Edited by Eleanor, Category  

Actinobacteriosis is caused by Actinobacillus Linnaeus infecting soft tissue of head; actinomycosis causing osteoporotic periostitis of upper and mandible; malignant edema caused by Clostridium Septicum; alveolar periostitis is a serious periodontal disease with secondary infection, which occurs in cow baby with unknown etiology; submandibular abscess is caused by cyanobacterium pyogenesis; Drug appliances can cause perforation of pharyngeal wall and septic cellulitis. The following specific to understand: the cow head scattered in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sexual swelling disease.

Therapeutic methods of scattered head swelling disease in dairy cows
Therapeutic methods of scattered head swelling disease in dairy cows

Actinobacillus disease

Actinobacteriosis is caused by Actinobacillus Linnaeus which infects soft tissues of the head, especially the tongue. Subjaw swelling may occur in cattle. Typical symptoms of the disease are local dense masses on the tongue, easily palpable masses on other parts of the skin, and sometimes other skin on the head (such as nostrils or facial skin) is infected alone. Infection may extend to the esophagus, and damage to the esophageal groove often causes the contents of the rumen to be vomited.

Actinobacteriosis of the skin occurs in other parts of the body, such as the limbs, face or abdomen. Injuries and infections can result in skin infections caused by certain doses of microorganisms, which are the normal flora of the digestive tract. Large wounds can cause bleeding and ulcers. Adult dairy cows are prone to this situation. The diagnosis of this disease should be differentiated from the gingival abscess, actinomycosis, foot-and-mouth disease, snakebite, and other diseases. The treatment of the disease requires systemic antibiotics to be effective, but may require prolonged treatment (7-10 days); clean fresh forage and drinking water are provided to the affected cattle to avoid contamination of the mud at the abscess site.


Actinomycosis causes osteoporotic periostitis of the upper and lower jaws, accompanied by an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding soft tissues. In some cattle with maxillary enlargement, the granuloma protruded from the skin. The chewing of the cattle was not significantly affected within 18 months after the mass was observed. The diseased cow has difficulty in chewing and has a large hypertrophic mass in the mandibular angle.

Despite the secondary infection, the highland cow remained in good health. Dysphagia is often caused by the irregular arrangement of molars. X-ray photographs of a 2-year-old cow suffering from actinomycosis of the mandible (apparently uncomfortable, rapidly losing weight) showed the formation of new bone membranes and the cavitation of bone. The disease should be differentiated from submandibular abscess and actinomycosis. For some dairy cows, actinomycosis, actinomycosis and local abscess caused by cyanobacterium pyogenesis are similar in clinical symptoms. Typical actinomycosis affects soft tissue, especially tongue, while actinomycosis affects bone. Debridement and prolonged systemic use of beta-lactam antibiotics are available for treatment, but the prognosis of actinomycosis is poor.

Malignant edema

Malignant edema is caused by Clostridium Septicum. It occurs in the head and neck after traumatic contamination of the body surface. Clinical symptoms of anorexia, fever, and toxemia were rapidly developed after the local injury of cattle. Infection of masseter muscles on the cheeks of dairy cows causes rapid expansion of unilateral soft tissue swelling, especially around the right nostril, salivation and chest edema in affected animals.

Despite rapid antibiotic treatment and prolonged administration, the infection spread to the forelimbs. Like many other cases, cattle die. The disease should be differentiated from skin urticaria (urticaria) and abscess. Cattle company can use Penicillin injection combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prolonged medication time cure early cases. Focal drainage is helpful in some cases. Although the Clostridium vaccine is available, animal immunization is not necessary because most cases are sporadic, not an infectious disease.

Alveolar periostitis

Periodontal diseases affect the alveolus of maxillary premolars and molars in calves, causing severe gingivitis and secondary bacterial infections. Postmortem autopsy revealed the loss or displacement of several deciduous teeth, especially the second and third premolars, and the dissolution of the periosteum and bone of the diseased maxilla. Some grasses with sharp spikes can cause traumatic gingival injury in dairy cows, leading to malnutrition and even death of cattle.

Clinical cases: 18-month-old bull lacked the 2nd and 3rd premolars on the right side of maxilla and the 2nd premolars on the left side. The loss of tissue around the teeth resulted in a deep depression on the right dental arch near the lip. The bull was seriously emaciated. Significant chronic ossifying periostitis infects the periodontium of the 2nd and 3rd premolars, which explains the possible causes of tooth loss. Antibiotics and symptomatic therapy can be used in the treatment.

Therapeutic methods of scattered head swelling disease in dairy cows
Therapeutic methods of scattered head swelling disease in dairy cows

Submandibular abscess

A submandibular abscess is a smooth local soft tissue swelling caused by cyanobacterium pyogenesis, with pus outflow from the horizontal part of the affected mandible. Lesions developed rapidly within 3 weeks and then slowly dissipated. The disease should be differentiated from actinomycosis, actinomycosis and mandibular fracture. The cattle rancher should perform Surgical drainage and irrigation, and antibiotics should be applied throughout the body if necessary.

Septic Cellulitis Caused by Drug Gun

The perforation of the pharyngeal wall caused by the gun causes septic cellulitis, which can spread to the mandibular and parotid regions. Visible cellulitis cattle mouth, nose purulent, odor. Calves are feverish and have no appetite, and cattle vision is decreased. In some cases, postmortem autopsy showed that there was a lot of thick pus under the pharynx and larynx mucosa, which could cause dyspnea (wheezing) and congestion on the surface of epiglottic mucosa. Improper administration techniques can lead to insecticide-repellent pills penetrating the pharyngeal mucosa and migrating along the neck.

Respiratory difficulties are caused by foreign body reactions and tracheal obstruction. Antibiotics should be actively used for anti-inflammatory treatment to prolong the administration time, but it is very difficult to treat severe cases with diffuse septic cellulitis. The difficulty of breathing or ruminal airsickness may occur, but most cases are ineffective. Usually, elimination is a more economical option.

Retropharyngeal abscess

The affected Angus cattle had a tennis-sized, free, basically painless, fluctuating mass after pharynx. The fibrous sac encapsulating the abscess limits the spread of infection. Abscesses in this area may be caused by medication appliances, esophageal probes or other sharp instruments, but they are usually caused by eating sticks and thorns. Drainage of the deep abscess may be dangerous because it is close to other structures, such as a carotid artery, jugular vein or parotid gland, but most abscesses eventually form in superficial and soft areas. Drainage is safer.

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