1. In the dry period (about 60 days before delivery), what does cow eat? Concentrate feeding is determined according to fatness.
The concentrate feed is limited to 4 kg per day, which is mainly composed of high-quality hay (alfalfa, ryegrass, etc.). It can not only strengthen the digestive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract, but also prevent the female cow from being overweight, and help cows produce calves smoothly. At this time, attention should be paid to the supply of calcium, phosphorus, and other inorganic salts, which should be reduced to 1/3-1/2 of the normal level. The general supply of calcium should be 0.2%-0.25% of the dry matter in the diet, and 0.24% of the phosphorus should be appropriate.
2.Strengthen breast massage of primipara cattle
Primipara cows like the Spanish cow should be given more care in the later stage of pregnancy. They should be accustomed to the daily management of lactating cows, including milking, at the latest 2 or 3 months before delivery. Massage mammary glands before delivery can promote the growth and development of mammary glands, increase the milk yield after delivery by about 10%-20%, promote the affinity between humans and animals, to prevent kicking.
Specific practice: in the first two or three months, massage breast 2 to 3 times a day (morning, noon and evening), each massage lasts for 5 to 10 minutes, until 7 days before giving birth to a cow baby. Do not wipe the nipples during breast massage, so as not to wipe off the waxy protective objects around the nipples.
3.Prevention of postpartum paralysis
Do not squeeze milk at one time after delivery, otherwise, because of the significant reduction of breast pressure, it will cause postpartum paralysis of high-yielding dairy cows. Generally, the first milking volume should be controlled at about 2 kg, 1/3 on the second day, 1/2 on the third day, and the milk can be squeezed out after 4 days.
At the same time, we should adopt the method of adjusting the calcium and phosphorus feeding quantity. The cattle company should supply about 40 grams of calcium and phosphorus daily within 2 weeks before delivery, and the calcium and phosphorus feeding quantity gradually return to normal level after delivery. This "high before and low after" method can stimulate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in cattle and play a role in disease prevention. Prenatal and postpartum intravenous calcium infusion can also be used.
Specific practices: Intravenous infusion of 500ml of 5% calcium chloride solution or 750 ml of 10% calcium gluconate within one week before and after delivery, respectively.
4.Prevention of mastitis
When the milk dries up, medication for nipple closure can effectively prevent and treat postpartum mastitis.
Specific practices: After the last milking, 2 million units of streptomycin powder and 3.2 million units of penicillin powder were mixed into 100-150 ml of vegetable oil after high-temperature sterilization, and then fully mixed, respectively, into nipple holes with nipple needles. Besides, there are also products "dry milk needles" on the cattle market, which have a good effect on preventing mastitis.
5.Prevention and treatment of placenta retention
Under normal conditions after delivery, the placenta can fall off automatically within 12 hours. If the placenta has not fallen off after 12 hours postpartum (8 hours in summer), measures should be taken, otherwise, adverse consequences will easily occur. Generally, oxytocin can be injected intramuscularly or mixed with 1000 ml of 10% glucose intravenously. The effect is better. It can promote uterine contraction and expel the placenta as soon as possible.
Besides, the Scottish highland cow should be immediately driven to stand up after delivery, and drink warm Leonurus decoction as soon as possible (100 grams of Leonurus, 50 grams of bran, 50 grams of calcium carbonate, and 10-15 kg of warm water), which is conducive to restoring physical strength and discharging the placenta.
6. Healthy and normally delivered cows should be allowed to eat hay freely, and corn silage should be reduced
Starting from the 4th day after delivery, the daily concentrate intake of dairy cows was increased by 0.5 kg, so that the daily concentrate intake of dairy cows reached about 10 kg within 11 days after delivery. This can not only slow down the weight loss of cows within 15 days after delivery but also promote milk production and rich milk nutrients.