Bovine uterine torsion refers to the torsion (rotation) of the whole pregnant uterus, one side of the corners of the uterus around its longitudinal axis, accompanied by the torsion of the cervix and anterior vagina. Most of the twisting sites were cervix and its anterior and posterior parts. The incidence of twisting to the right was more than to the left. The degree of twisting was mostly 90o-180o, and the number of individual cases could reach 360o. Most of them occur before parturition or at the beginning of childbirth. They have an acute onset and severe symptoms. If they are not diagnosed and treated in time, they can lead to the death of pregnant animals and fetuses. Five cases of dairy cow uterine torsion disease were clinically diagnosed and treated. Four cases were cured and one case died due to delayed diagnosis.
1. It is caused by the anatomical characteristics of the reproductive organs of dairy cows. In the later stage of pregnancy, the fetus enlarges abnormally, the uterus bends forward significantly, the anterior end of the uterine horn is basically free in the abdominal cavity, located at the bottom of the abdomen, relying on the rumen and other viscera and abdominal wall support, the stability of the uterus is poor. Such anatomical structure, coupled with the way of dairy cattle lying up, can cause the pregnant uterus which is free in the abdominal cavity to turn to one side once it slips on the sharp rise, because of the inertia effect; some cattle also chase and crawl across other estrous female cows in the late pregnancy and fall down, which may also cause the twist during parturition. Acute lying-up due to pain in childbirth.
2. Lack of uterine tension, uterine wall relaxation, small non-pregnant corners of the uterus, relaxation of the mesometrium, insufficient amniotic fluid are prone to uterine torsion.
3. Improper feeding and management and inadequate exercise may also promote uterine torsion.
There are normal signs of prenatal delivery, restlessness during labor, loss of appetite, frequent tail shaking, forefoot scraping, abdominal review, hind limb kicking, back arched, frequent blame, a small amount of amniotic fluid outflow, that is, no fetal membranes and fetal head exposed. The birth canal was not fully opened and the midwife could not reach in with one hand. After the occurrence of the uterine twist, the cervix contracted spastically because of the twist, resulting in the cervical mouth not easy to expand or inadequate expansion.
After routine disinfection of the arm into the vagina, the hand can barely reach the cervical orifice when the degree of twist is relatively light; if the degree of twist is serious, the birth canal will become narrow, the hand can not reach in, touch along the direction of twist, the vaginal wall is spiral folds. In cattle with severe torsion, the labia is swollen and the swollen state is oval, that is to say, the direction of torsion is opposite to the direction of labia enlargement.
Dairy farmers use the hand stretches deep into the rectum and feels that the rectum is twisted strongly. It feels that the rectum is not straight and has a turn to one side. The vagina is a spiral fold, which makes the uterus tense. It can touch the fold of uterine protuberance, twist the tension of the broad ligament of the uterus on one side, and relax the broad ligament of the uterus on the other side. Occasionally, the fetus can touch the uterus body longitudinally. Bit or subordinate.
Uterine twist can be diagnosed by clinical symptoms, rectal and vaginal examinations.
According to the severity of twisting, it is decided to apply a rolling method or surgical treatment to correct uterine torsion in time, return to the normal anatomical position and ensure calving smoothly.
"Rolling Maternal Method" to correct uterine twist: lay soft grass on the broad flat ground lay down cows, tie the forelimbs and hind limbs with ropes respectively, leaving about 100 cm of rope head. The cows lie on the same side of the uterus twist and pull the rope quickly in the same direction of the twist with about three people on each side to make the cow turn slowly. Slowly return to the original recumbent state, once again let its rapid rotation. Roll 2 to 3 times like this, put the disinfected hand into the birth canal and check carefully whether it is in place. This method can be successfully repositioned in most cases with the early reversal and survival of the cow babies.
When the severe conservative method of torsion can not be repaired or the fetus has been dead for a long time, the operation is carried out by laparotomy. Specific operation methods and strategies.
When Dingmou, a cattle farmer in Balanghu Village, Malianqu Township, Litong District, gave birth to the fourth child, it was near full-term calving, and amniotic fluid flowed a lot, that is, the fetus's feet and head could not be seen, and the sick cattle could not eat or drink. The diseased cattle were restless, wagging their tails frequently, shrinking or scolding from time to time, kicking abdomen step by step, but no fetal membranes or fetuses were seen. The body temperature was 40.5 C, and the heart rate was 105 beats/min.
Vaginal examination: routine disinfection of the arms into the vagina, feeling very narrow inside, the vaginal wall has spiral folds to the right, can only allow one hand barely into. Rectal examination: The hand goes deep into the rectum, feeling that the rectum has also been twisted, you can feel the spiral twisted vaginal folds, uterine broad ligament tension on one side, the other side of relaxation, no contact with the fetus. It can be concluded that the cattle had uterus twisting to the right, which resulted in the severe inadequate opening of the birth canal and cervical orifice, and the normal delivery of the fetus.
Rehabilitation by "Mother Roll Method"
According to the aforementioned method, the right side of Baoding diseased cattle, four people and one group, respectively, fixed the front and rear limbs, while some people protect the head of the cattle. At the same time, three people pulled the rope hard, turned the cattle to the right side, and had a vaginal examination to see if the twist was corrected. The first roll was not corrected. Slowly turn the cattle to the right side, then quickly turn to the left side, again vaginal examination. After three consecutive rolls, the twist was successfully restored. The uterus of diseased cattle was relieved from twisting, the whole birth canal opened, amniotic fluid flowed out and the fetal membranes exposed in vitro. After simple midwifery, the fetus gave birth smoothly, and the mother and child were healthy.
Due to the long duration of calving and cervical injury caused by twisting, it is necessary to strengthen heart, reduce inflammation, supplement calcium and energy to promote the further recovery of sick cattle. 10% glucose injection 1 500 mL, 1 000 mL saline, 10% calcium gluconate 500 mL, 10% sodium caffeine injection 20 mL, hydrocortisone injection 100 mL, Cefalexin 6 g, VC injection 50 mL, VB1 injection 50 mL, reasonable compatibility, slow intravenous drip. Oxytocin 10 IU intramuscular injection can promote the excretion of fetal placenta and lochia, which is conducive to uterine recovery.
When the degree of twist is slight and the opening of the cervical opening is incomplete, the cow can stand up and lift the uterus through the board under the abdomen. It can also make the uterus twist and restore by grasping a part of the fetus from the vagina or rectum and then turning quickly to the opposite direction of the twist. This method is simple to operate and easy to master.
Before operation, cattle breeders should correctly judge the direction of uterine torsion, whether to right or left; the direction of bovine body roll should be the same as the direction of rotation; after each roll, we should do vaginal examination, judge whether to restore from the extent of the opening of the birth canal and determine whether to continue to roll.
Early and accurate diagnosis and corrective measures are the most important. For cases of the incomplete opening of the birth canal and cervical orifice, artificial midwifery should not be carried out blindly to avoid complications such as cervical laceration, severe injury of the birth canal and massive hemorrhage. As the disease is not a common and frequently occurring disease, we should consult with an open mind, consult veterinary technicians with rich experience, examine carefully, analyze the condition, make accurate diagnosis conclusions, make timely rehabilitation, and recover economic losses for cattle ranchers. If the diagnosis is wrong, it may miss the best treatment opportunity and fail.
In the later stage of pregnancy, we should strengthen the feeding management and reduce the provocative factors of uterine twist. Regular cleaning of mat manure, keep the floor level of the enclosure and sports ground, prevent pregnant cattle from falling; in addition to strengthening nutrition facts, we should increase the amount of exercise properly, not tether and restrict activities, to maintain the Suitable Body Condition. During parturition, we should do a good job of examination, diligent observation, early detection, and early treatment. If it is converted into a severe twist, conservative treatment is not easy to repair. Cesarean section is needed, which will increase the cost of breeding.